# All Questions

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### The Public Market Equivalent measure in private equity

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Public Market Equivalent measure in private equity? Why is it that the volatility of the cash flows do not matter? This topic has been discussed in a ...
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### Wiener process proof

Can someone prove to me how $dW_t=W_t-W_s$, where $t=s+1$, the difference of the Wiener process eventually equates to $dW_t=z*(dt)^{(1/2)}$ where $z$ is standard normal, $N(0,1)$ in the following ...
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### Attributing change in yield as a result of structural change

Suppose your portfolio has $w_0$ amount of bonds with yield $r_0$. Now you buy additional $w_1$ amount of bonds with yield $r_1$, then buy additional $w_2$ amount of bonds with yield $r_2$. ...
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### Is Behavioral Finance relevant to quants?

This topic has been prompted by the following question: Measuring Behavioral Finance Effects in Fund/Portfolio Manager Analysis After reading it and the comments below I started thinking whether ...
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### Volatility Minimum Analysis for Trading

I have been back testing some algorithms against a low volume highly volatile stock. I've found that during low volatile periods the technical indicators are following noise more than real trends. ...
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### What's the underlying idea of definition of constrained market in Skiadas' Asset Pricing Theory?

I'm self-studying Skiadas' Asset Pricing Theory, and find the definition of constrained market on page 21 confusing(you can find it here in the sample chapter). Deﬁnition 1.26. A constrained ...
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### Approaches to check/validate the output of an optimization algorithm

Let's say we want to optimize the a function $f(x_1,\dots, x_n)$ with $(x_1, \dots , x_n) \in \mathbb{D}^n$. For the sake of simplicity let $\mathbb{D}^n$ be the unit sphere. We chose an optimization ...
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### How to calculate Rm knowing volatility?

I have a regression model where I need to use the return on the market (Rm). However, it is not given in the exercise, I only know the market index return volatility as well as the volatility of the ...
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### measuring the performance of round-trips on stocks

can you provide me with some ideas to assess the profitability of round-trips? That is when I buy 100 shares of IBM at 10\$and I resell them two days later at 11\$, how can I measure the profit made? ...
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### Do intraday volume and volatility share the same properties?

volatility clustering and mean reversion are very well known properties that one could use when trading. Traders, especially in options world, do take realized vol into account (e.g. by forecasting it ...
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### regarding Basel III IRB method for credit risk

Would the exposures between standard method and internal rating based method for credit risk under Basel III remain same?I could not find any documents for IRB approach under Basel III. Is it still ...
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### What would be an alternative if the VaR model is not acceptable?

Assume we have a VaR model wich says : the lost should not exceed X for more 3 days and we come up with more days where the lost exceeded X, what is usually done for the VaR model ? Do we switch to ...
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### 3 Factor HJM model, do these factors have an economic meaning?

In the HJM model, in case we have 3 factors, do these factors have an economic meaning at all ?
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### Zakamouline Optimal Hedging of Options with Transaction Costs

I've read that the Zakamouline method suggests the best optimal hedging of options when taking transaction costs into account. I've read the article but am having difficulty understanding it well ...
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### Delta Neutral / Gamma Neutral Positions

I've been trying to find out more about options positions which are both delta neutral and gamma neutral--created with some kind of calendar spread. Supposedly, such a trade will be perfectly hedged ...
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### How to backtest the VaR model?

I have a sorted historical P&L vector of 250 days and say, I want to calculate the 90% VaR on this distribution. I will look for the 225 element (90% * 250 = 225) and this will be my Value at ...
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### An alternative to the Gaussian distribution to describe/fit market stock returns

After the financial crisis in 2008, many people (including me) don't really believe that stock returns can be described in terms of the normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). But besides the ...
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### Copula Value At Risk

Let's suppose I have two asset in my portfolio. I want to compute Copula Value At Risk. Can you help me? This is the code I wrote: ...
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### Gibson & Schwartz (1190) - Time series empirical properties and Stochastic Process assumed

Gibson and Scwhartz in their paper "Stochastic convenience yield and the pricing of oil contingent claims" assume a log normal process for the spot price. They later claim to justify this process ...
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### Practical implementation of Least Squares Monte Carlo (tweaks and pittfalls)

The Longstaff-Schwartz LSM approach is nowadays ubiquitous(at least in the academic literature) in pricing path dependant derivatives. Up to now I have mostly worked with lattice methods. My ...
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### Markit PMI vs ISM PMI

What is the difference between the Markit Manufacturing PMI and the ISM Manufacturing PMI? The monthly number differs a lot, my understanding is that they are trying to indicate the same thing.
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### Collateralized Derivative [on hold]

Could someone kindly help define and scarify what collateralized derivative is? I saw that term in some paper about OIS curve discussion... thanks.
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### Can the duration of a bond be greater than Time to Maturity

In the case of a vanilla bond I know that the duration will be less than the time to maturity. But I am observing that for a non-vanilla bond, the duration is greater than time to maturity. Can ...
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### Rationale behind formula for pivot point calculation

Is there any objective rationale or mathematical reasoning behind the following formula for pivot points and intra day support and resistance levels? What are the underlying assumptions for the ...
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### Where can i find financial data of CDO's starting from 1996

I'm searching for financial information on CDO's from 1996. These infos should include: Collateral,Type (RMBS, CMBS, CDO2, CLO, ABS,etc.) their course, Underlying, Rating, duration,year,and interest ...
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### How to obtain specific information on FX trading systems?

I'm trying to compare trading venues using a quantitative product selection matrix (and eventually software vendors using a different matrix specifically for vendors), and I was wondering if anyone ...
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### Wolfram Mathematica Black-Litterman momentum strategy? [on hold]

Hi! I need your help, does anybody know how to implement into the wolfram mathematica software Black-Litterman momentum strategy? thank you in advance....
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### Performance Evaluation of technical indicator [on hold]

How to evaluate performance of a technical indicator? Is there any standard tests for Predictive power and timing of a Indicator? Thanks
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### Linear-Boundary Crossing Problem for Brownian Motion

This is a question I came across while reading: $W = (W_t)_{t\geq{0}}$ is a standard BM. Let $\mu\in \mathbb{R}$, and let $\tau_{a}^{\mu}$ = $\inf(t>0;W_t = a + \mu{t})$ be the first passage time ...
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### Fitting a sigmoid function to incomplete, structured, data

I have an incomplete data set that looks like this: and I believe that it will continue to form a sigmoid-like shape. How can fit a sigmoid curve to this data given my assumption about what the ...
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### Best practice approach for calculating the PE-ratio

I am trying to calculate the historical PE ratios of a stock, but which date should I use to get the stock price in calculating the PE ratio? My current approach is to use the stock price of a day ...
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### Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap

I'm trying to build an intuitive understanding of the following $\textit{The price of the replicating portfolio at time$t$of the floating rate receiver is}$ ...
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### How to hedge a forward contract

I was asked this in an interview and I messed it up lol. This might actually be really basic. Let's say I signed a forward contract to buy NASDAQ at 4000 one year from now. How can I hedge this cash ...
102 views

### Sharpe Ratio, annualized monthly returns vs annual returns vs annual rolling returns?

I would like to calculate the Yearly Sharpe Ratio on MSCI World index I have monthly values of the index that falls back up to Jan/1970, hence about: 44 years, 528 months In order to calculate ...
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### What return equation is Engle referring to in his Nobel lecture?

Engle comments in "Risk and Volatility: Econometric models and Financial Practice" that If the price of risk were constant over time, then rising conditional variances would translate linearly ...

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