# How is the default probability implied from market implied CDS spreads for CVA/DVA calculation?

From point 38 on P.17 the default probability can be implied from market implied CDS spreads. "Macro Surface" method is mentioned, but I cannot get any clue of what it is? Where do I get the acedemic reference for that?

Also what is the commonly used methodology to imply default probability for CVA/DVA calculation?

The article "Credit and Debit Valuation Adjustment" can be seen in http://www.ivsc.org/sites/default/files/IVSC%20CVA%20-DVA%20%20ED_0.pdf

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