# Tagged Questions

The simultaneous purchase and sale of a financial security in order to profit from the difference in the security price during the trading activity.

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### In a Black-Scholes world, why must volatility be strictly increasing in time-to-expiration?

This question is from Rebonato's Volatility and Correlation 2nd Edition. Rebonato states that if $\sigma_T^2T$ is not strictly increasing, it would be simple to set up an arbitrage. Unfortunately ...
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### Arbitragefree Pricing: Q vs. P

I read that the Fundamental Theorem of Asset Pricing states, that a market is arbitrage-free if and only if there exists an equivalent martingale measure Q, under which the discounted asset price ...
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### Arbitrage Strategy Proof in Bjork

In Tomas Bjork's Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time (or here), $\exists$ this proposition Proposition 2.9 Suppose that a claim X is reachable with replicating portfolio h. Then any price at t=0 of ...
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### Volatility arbitrage - how is the profit extracted?

Is there any paper that describes in detail how the profit is extracted in directional volatility bet (vol arb)? I mean in the case that I bet the realized volatility will be lower than currently ...
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### Pricing of a simple contingent claim

Earlier I had the question (5.11 Tomas Bjork): $$\frac{\partial F}{\partial t}+\frac{1}{2}x^2\frac{\partial^2 F}{\partial t^2}+x = 0$$ $$F(T,x) = ln(x^2)$$ And solve it using Feynman-Kac. The ...
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### Why is the LIBOR-market model free of arbitrage?

Recently I have been reading a lot on the market models. One thing that keeps escaping me - why is the Libor-market model (LMM) assumed to e free of aritrage in continuous time ? To me this means ...
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### Harnessing small correlations for reliable profit

It is said that Edward O. Thorp was able to harness small correlations for reliable financial gain. I've seen some strategies based on strong correlations which did not seem particularly reliable. ...
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### Show that convexity of call price as a function of the strike is violated [closed]

European call options with strikes 90, 100 and 110 on the same underlying asset and with the same maturity are trading for 22.50, 18.84 and 13.97 respectively. show that the convexity of the call ...
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### .NET statistical packages recommendation

What open source or commercial .NET statistical package would you guys recommend? I am doing statistical arbitrage in options. The functions I need mainly are regressions, optimizations..etc. It would ...
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### Why would a 6M LIBOR rate be significantly above 3M LIBOR, ED futures and swap rates?

Just was just looking at the various interest rates and noticed this: ...
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### Sufficient conditions for no static arbitrage

In Carr and Madan (2005), the authors give sufficient conditions for a set of call prices to arise as integrals of a risk-neutral probability distribution (See Breeden and Litzenberger (1978)), and ...
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### Arbitrage free price of a derivative when the price is collected over the lifetime of the derivative

Let $X_t$ be an american style financial derivative with random exercise time $T$ where $t$ and $T$ belongs to some finite set $A$. Buying this derivative requires the buyer to pay $p_t$ up to time ...
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### help me compare methods to compute one instrument price from another instrument price

Assume we have two instruments A and B. Also time is increasing from 1 to n. Let's say that ...
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### Tutorial for working with tick data? [closed]

Can you recommend a good tutorial for working with tick data for the purpose of algorithmic trading? Is the data normally stored in a database and only bits are read into memory at a time? Is there ...
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### Usefulness of simultaneously buying triangular and multiple arbitrages on the Forex

I have a limited financial background but I'm trying to figure out the usefulness of buying size-n arbitrages (n > 3), and I wonder the kind of risks - if any - associated with such a strategy. Say ...
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### Arbitrage between markets

I'm trying to understand how arbitrage works, but I'm having some difficulties based on some restrictions: I have markets A, B and C. The currencies that are traded are X <-> Y, and X <-> Z. ...
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### Why isn't the Nelson-Siegel model arbitrage-free?

Assume $X_t$ is a multivariate Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, i.e. $$dX_t=\sigma dB_t-AX_tdt$$ and the spot interest rate evolves by the following equation: $$r_t=a+b\cdot X_t.$$ After solving for $X_t$ ...
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### calculating arbitrage-free ranges based off outright, spread, and fly prices

This may be more applied math rather than finance focused, but I'm curious about using linear algebra techniques for generating possible arbitrage signals among outright instruments and spreads/flies ...
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### A few questions about signs of the Greek letters

Rho is the partial derivative of the value of call option, $C$, w.r.t the riskfree interest rate $r$: $$\rho \equiv \frac{\partial C}{\partial r}$$ In the standard B-S formula this term is positive, ...
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### How do different methods and techniques used in pairs trading compare?

I was going through the paper of Avellaneda (2008) on stat arb and I found it interesting that he uses asset returns vs. their respective ETFs to compute the s-score. I am wondering if anyone has ...
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### How often do ETF creation units baskets change?

Large institutions can swap baskets of underlying securities for ETF shares that can then be traded on an exchange as part of arbitrage between the price of the basket and the ETF share price. These ...
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### Where are creation units baskets for ETFs published?

Where can the specification of a creation unit basket for an ETF be found? This information is needed for calculating the arbitrage possible between the ETF instrument itself and the creation unit ...
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### What is the average Sharpe ratio of volatility arbitrage funds?

Where can I get data on performance metrics for volatility arbitrage funds? I am trying to compare the Sharpe ratio of my strategy to those of the major players.
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### How much data is needed to validate a short-horizon trading strategy?

Suppose one has an idea for a short-horizon trading strategy, which we will define as having an average holding period of under 1 week and a required latency between signal calculation and execution ...
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We know that $$C-P = PV(F_{0,T}-K)$$ When we create a synthetic forward, we buy call and sell a put at the same strike price $K$. When we buy the call why do we assume the premium is positive? When ...
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### What research is available on the performance of convertible bond arbitrage models?

The basic principles of convertible bond arbitrage have been clear at least since Thorp and Kassouf (1967). For those who are not familiar, the arbitrage entails purchasing a convertible bond and ...
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### How can an ETF outperform its benchmark index?

Deutsche Bank’s ETF platform, db X-trackers, provides a rather remarkable ETF tracking Euro Stoxx 50 (which is the most widely used regional blue-chip index in Europe). What makes it remarkable is ...
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### Is statistical arbitrage on FX possible?

Do you know of any papers which consider pairs trading (or statistical arbitrage) on foreign exchange? I couldn't find any. I asked this question on several forums and got no reply. Thus I guess this ...