# Tagged Questions

The process of evaluating a strategy, theory, or model by applying it to historical data.

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### Backtesting with fundamentals

Recently I've read some books about quantative approach to fundamental investing: - What works on Wall Street - James O'Shaughnessy - Quantitative Value - Wesley Gray, Tobias Carlisle - Quantitative ...
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### Expected Shortfall (CVaR) Backtesting

I am writing my thesis on VaR and ES risk measurements and have encountered some issues with how to best test the accuracy of ES estimates. My understanding of the topic is that backtesting ES ...
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### Encyclopedia of Statistical Tests

I am aware of: Encyclopedia of Chart Patterns, Encyclopedia of Technical Analysis. Question I'm wondering if there's something similar, but in the form of: "Encyclopedia of Statistical Backtesting ...
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### How do I backtest a convertible bond arbitrage strategy in R/Matlab?

Since no one was able to answer my previous question, I am going to try to backtest a modern convertible bond arbitrage strategy myself (perhaps I'll report the results back here, if you're lucky :)). ...
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### Backtesting on historical option data

I have downloaded some daily historical option data for a timespan of 10 years and want to perform trading backtests with them. Data are European index options, on ODAX. My question is about realistic ...
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### Statistical significance of trading systems that use indicators with long lookbacks

Let's say we have a trading system that trades daily, holding for one day, but uses an indicator that looks back over the last 5 years. A simple example could be the percent change in price of an ...
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### Up and Down days in GBPUSD and a Filter

I want to study if the odds of an up or down day in a forex pairs is 50-50. I just count the total number of up and down days in X years and compare it with the total days. The results are very ...
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### What is an acceptable Sharpe Ratio for a prop desk?

What should be the value of a Sharpe Ratio for an intraday quantitative strategy to be accepted by a bank or hedge fund's prop desk? Let's assume the returns are daily changes in account equity, close ...
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### How to compute the alpha decay of a strategy?

How can one compute the alpha decay of a systematic trading strategy?
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### How to find optimal look back in quant trading models

I'm in the process of building a quantitative trading model, I want to improve on the way in which I decide upon a look back length for the indicators. I understand the different pros/cons for very ...
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### Resequencing of MsgSeqNum in FIX 4.2

I am trying to achieve the following functionality using QuickFIX for FIX 4.2 Send a couple of orders and make sure they’re filled. Then disconnect. Change the incoming (from Broker) sequence number ...
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### Which indices to use for an equity vs. fixed-income portfolio simulation?

I want to backtest several basic optimization methods (e.g. MVO, "most-diversified portfolio"), and I want to do this on a basket of different asset indexes. To start with, I want to simulate a 60/40 ...
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### Learn backtesting using MATLAB

What are some good ressources (books, articles, ...) to learn backtesting of investment strategies using MATLAB ? It can be strategies related to fixed-income, equities, derivatives, ... whatever. ...
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### How to most optimally perform currency conversions when backtesting on portfolio level?

I am currently expanding my own strategy profiling and testing platform which partly consists of a portfolio backtesting module. The backtest engine processes tick based data (quotes for currencies, ...
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### Why the diff of signal is called positions and what does it mean in backtesting?

I'm trying to learn Backtesting 101. I found this example which is very simple but I do not quite understand some of the terms. I understand Moving Average algorithm which is to measure trends or to ...
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### analyze strategy performance with given matrix of weights/time and weekly returns in R

I have a matrix of 259 weekly returns, 50 assets and a portfolio composition for each of the 259 weeks. I would like to test the performance of the portfolio during 52 weeks, rebalancing every 12 ...
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I'm backtesting an algorithm for trading nasdaq stocks, and would like to take into account the spread. I am using historical data from yahoo, which contains: open, high, low, close, volume, adj. ...
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### Backesting VaR on overlapping intervals to year's end

Let us assume that each month of the year (up to November) we calculate a VaR (say 99%) with holding period to the end of the year. Thus the holding period starts with 12 months and goes down to 1 ...
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### How to optimize return in a moving average crossover algorithm

Moving average crossover strategy is a widely used strategy in algo trading. Is there a way to optimize return in a moving average crossover stratergy. I have used this site to backtest MA crossover ...
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### Question about historical volatility ranking

I have seen this strategy example, which uses garch in a regime switching context: https://systematicinvestor.wordpress.com/2012/01/06/trading-using-garch-volatility-forecast/ The author classifies ...
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### How to compute daily compounded backtest returns closer to real-world results?

I often run quick tests of trading strategies in my analytics suites by: multiplying a vector of signal (lagged, {-1,0,1}) with a time series of daily percentage returns doing a cumulative product ...
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### Back-testing Value at Risk with a WML investment strategy

I'm currently taking a course in Financial Econometrics and there is a question in the lecture notes regarding back-testing of VaR which I'm have difficulty with. First of all the procedure for back-...
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### How to design back-testing (validation) for such modified Vasicek model?

Consider a classical Black Scholes model , $$\frac{dS}{S} = \mu dt + \sigma dW$$ , where $dW$ is a Brownian motion, that $W(t_1) - W(t_0) \sim N(0, t_1 - t_0)$. The back-testing strategy is straight-...
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### Volatility of a rolling window strategy

What methods can be applied to determine the volatility of strategy using a rolling window? Using normal standard deviation would bias the results as the returns will be highly correlated. Although, ...
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### How do you estimate the capacity of a strategy from historical data?

What are some good ways to estimate the capacity of a strategy from historical data (including full market depth)? Obviously, a naive approach is that you want the strategy's returns to exceed its ...
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### Bootstrapping first, then data mine?

I posted this on Cross Validated a month ago, but I didn't get any answers. Sorry for the second post! I'm wondering about the whole process of testing/data-mining for a strategy and THEN testing on ...
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### What latency should I use for backtesting a high-frequency strategy?

We're developing an HFT strategy for highly liquid futures traded at Eurex. We are planning to colocate our server and to use data feed of QuantHouse and execution API of ObjectTrading. Backtesting is ...
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### Methodology for handling short american options in a back test

Given that an American option can be exercised at any time, how does one handle algorithmically shorting an American option in a back test? I am not sure what the best practice is to simulate the ...
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### Overlapping Value-at-Risk Backtest Data an Issue?

My understanding of VaR model back testing is thus: ~~ t: Calculate daily VaR using look back data over n past days t+1: Compare daily return against VaR, record breach if one occurred, repeat ...
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### How to reactivate a risk mangement rule in an automated process

If some conditions are met (stop loss, trailing stop, take profit...) we will close ours positions (sell/buy) to avoid having more loss or to ensure profit. In an automatic trading system, it is easy ...
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### How do I backfill the price of bonds for backtesting?

I need to backfill the price of bonds for testing a startegy. The method employed is: Regressing the YTM of the bond against a benchmark. Using the regression estimates to calculate the YTM for the ...
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### Quant/Stat Factor Performance Website/Distribution?

Does anyone know of a decent quant/stat factor website, distribution(public or private) or publication that tracks performance of "many" of traditional quant/stat factors? By that I mean would show ...
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### Are there canonical test cases for testing of pricing engines

Short intro: We are developing pricing engines for the calculation of market risk in a Solvency II solution, including bonds, callable bonds, cds, options, futures and so on. Are there any canonical ...
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### Software for backtesting outside strategies (CSV transaction upload)

I've developed some software which generates sets of trades, and I'd like to backtest those trades. My software currently outputs a CSV file with details of each trade: ...
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### How to get the the final % return in backtesting?

I'm learning how to do backtesting in Python using Pandas. I'm learning how to use Moving Average Crossover. I've generated signals to buy or to sell already. But I'm not sure where to go from there? ...
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### backtesting options strategies in R

I would like to backtest an options strategy in R. I require the ability to delta hedge and rebalance to options in the portfolio at different frequencies (daily, monthly,etc.) What packages are the ...
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### What are the advantages of knowing the bid and ask over the best bid and ask?

I am importing historical intraday tick data from Bloomberg and I noticed the Bloomberg API allows users to import best bid, best ask, bid, and ask prices If I am backtesting a trading strategy, what ...
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### Limits on Short selling

When back testing an algorithm that relies upon short selling certain stocks, how to limit the short selling so that the back-test results still remain reliable? What kind of controls are generally ...
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### How to select optimal betting strategy from backtest?

I have written a model for predicting the winner of UFC fights. My model calculates the probability of each fighter to win a given match. I have back tested the model and found it to be very ...
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### Backtesting Period

Views on timeframes for backtesting vary considerably. Curious on what timeframe/trade size leads to a statistically significant result. For example, what backtest period is reasonable for a system ...
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### Aftcast Generation

Aftcast is a way of simulating equity curves for different start years, usually from a large sample data ~100 years. Its kind of like start date sensitivity testing but in my case, I incorporated ...
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### backtesting a 5% quantile model of a discrete value random variable?

If a random variable is discrete, and we are interested in its quantile value, how to define a proper back testing procedure? For example, the underlying variable with a discrete value is  d(\...
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### desk's performance

I need your point of view in evaluating the monthly performance of a desk. I have the daily credit risk capital requirement (A); the net banking income or GNP (B). What is the best measure of ...
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### Can I split my backtesting into multiple consecutive sub-periods?

I'm testing a model to estimate the VaR of a portfolio with different stocks. I used 1500 data to estimate some parameters, and now I have other 1500 data for backtesting purposes (for a total of 3000 ...
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### 'GARCH - extreme value theory - copula' approach to estimate risk measures in R

I'm reading about this approach of using GARCH-EVT-copula methodology to separate univariate and joint estimation and then estimate for example VaR and ES. I wanted to try something similar, but my ...
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### Trading signal strength: [-1 to 1] or [predicted return]?

In the context of a backtesting engine, is it better to have strategy generate trade signals in the range from -1 to 1 or as exact predicted returns (e.g. -12% or 26%). The difference lies in how to ...
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### Strategy Testing

Firstly I am a newbie so I will apologise in advance if this is in the wrong forum. My question concerns testing for an equity trading strategy and I would appreciate any comments as to whether my ...
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### VaR backtesting with overlapping time intervals

Of course the issue here is dependence: can it be removed or accounted for (in independence tests too, which of course would be troublesome)? There's a lot of literature on regression in this setting, ...