Black-Scholes is a mathematical model used for pricing options.

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Merton model riskless self-financing derivation

Suppose $dA_t = A_t[\mu dt+\sigma dW_t]$ (assets' value) under the physical measure, plus the other assumptions of the Merton model. Suppose further that debt and equity are tradeable assets that ...
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derive vega for black schole call from this formula?

Is it possible to get the right formula for vega of a call option under the black scholes model from this formula? $$\frac{\partial{C}}{\partial{\sigma}}=\frac{S_0}{\sqrt{2\pi}}{e^\frac{-d_+^2}{2}}(\...
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105 views

Linear combination of Payoffs using Black-Scholes

Write the payoffs in Figure 3.8 as linear combination of call options and derive a closed form formula for the Black-Scholes price, the Delta, and the Gamma of them. All the Greeks of the option are ...
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135 views

How can I make this portfolio self-financing?

$a_t S_t$ = number of shares ($S_t$ is stock price at $t$), $S_0 = 1$ $b_t \beta _t$ = saving account value , $d \beta_t = r \beta_t dt$, $r=$ interest rate So the value of the portfolio: $$V_t = ...
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78 views

What are the units of the variables appearing in a standard stochastic differential equation for a Wiener process?

The Black Scholes model assumes the following form for the Wiener process describing the evolution of the stock price S: $dS=\mu S dt + \sigma S dX$ Clearly $S$ ...
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Black-Scholes Equation - Riskless portfolio derivation

The following is a summary of the derivation of the Black-Scholes equation as given on wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black-Scholes_equation#Derivation) - I have a question regarding the ...
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471 views

American Swaption Pricing with Monte-Carlo method

I want to price an American swaption but I am not sure about what I am doing. Tree methods and PDE discretization seem difficult to adapt to a swaption. I am trying a Monte-Carlo approach. (in ...
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252 views

Black-Scholes derivation assumption contradiction

In many books and derivations of the Black-Scholes PDE one sees that $$\Pi=V-\Delta F \Rightarrow d\Pi=dV-\Delta dF$$ which implicitly assumes that $d\Delta=0$. Somewhere down the road one then ...
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454 views

Black (1976) model: relationship between spot and forward prices

Does the Black (1976) model require the existence of the relation $F(t,T)=S(t)e^{r(T−t)}$? I studied the derivation of the Black-Scholes formula. However, although I know the Black formula, I've ...
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50 views

Trinomial model converges to Black-Scholes weakly

Consider risk-neutral trinomial model with $N$ periods presented by $$S_{(k+1)\delta}H_{k+1}, \ \ \text{for} \ \ k=0,\ldots,N-1$$ where $\delta:=\frac{T}{N}$ and $\{H_k\}_{1}^{N}$ is a sequence of i....
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142 views

Black-Scholes Equation with dividend

Consider a European option with payoff $$g(S_T) = S_T^{-5}e^{10S_T}$$ Assume that the interest rate is $r = .1$ and the underlying asset satisfies $S_0 = 2, \sigma = .2$, an pays dividend at ...
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124 views

What should be the sign of greek letter $\rho$?

I'm reading the book Risk Management and Shareholders Value in Banking by Resti & Sironi. I quote a paragraph from the book (Chapter 5, appendix): The derivative of an option’s value with ...
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77 views

Volatility of Multiple Stocks

According to BSM, Stock Price follows log-normal distribution s.t. $$S(t)=S(0)*\exp(\sigma\sqrt t Z-(\sigma^2t)/2)$$ where Z is standard normal variable Then volatility of this stock is $\sigma \sqrt ...
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86 views

Black Scholes Model and Dividends

My question can be summarised as such: Consider a portfolio. Say it has a price $\Pi = x$. Portfolio consists of a stock and a sequence of call options underlying on the stock. It has been announced ...
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1answer
97 views

Why is the black-scholes model arbitrage free when σ>0?

I want to show that: if $σ$ is positive then there is no arbitrage in the model, even if $r > µ$. Whilst I have satisfied this for $ r > \mu$, I cannot see why the conditioning on $\sigma>0 $ ...
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117 views

The source of “Cost of hedging” in the Black Scholes model

I am trying to get some intuition for the fact that a Black-Scholes price for an option is equal to the cost of replicating the option. Say the interest is 0. The option is obviously still worth ...
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1answer
72 views

Effect of massive volatility on BS formula

I am experimenting with very high volatility on the standard Black-Scholes formula. I set risk free to zero, time to expiry to 1, volatility to 1 (=100%), and underlying to 1. Then I simulate the ...
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966 views

Which interest rates to use for options pricing?

I am looking at the historical treasury interest rates and am uncertain which rates would be best to use for options pricing. Should I use 1 month, 6 month, 2 year? See: http://www.treasury.gov/...
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223 views

Bachelier model: number of stocks in replicating strategy

Given: Consider a two-asset, continuous time model (B,S) where \begin{equation} dB_t = B_t r dt, \quad dS_t = \mu dt + \sigma dW_t. \end{equation} The question is: Show that there exists a ...
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589 views

Black Scholes - how to calculate delta with a vol skew

I am trying to calculate the delta of an option at different strike prices where the underlying has a pronounced implied volatility skew in order to correctly hedge an options strategy. Researching ...
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2k views

How to prove price of Asian option under geometric averaging is cheaper than a European call?

This was an exam question at Cambridge University. Let $S_t = S_0\exp(\sigma W_t + (r-\dfrac{1}{2}\sigma^2)$ and a bank account returns a continuously-compounded rate of interest $r$. Consider the ...
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596 views

What is the difference between the methods (listed in content) in pricing convertible bond?

To price the convertible bond, one of the models is the bond plus equity option method. That is, the value of convertible bonds is evaluated by finding the value of the straight bond and the value of ...
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824 views

Formula for variance of European call/put in Black Scholes

I have a quite basic question, but I can't find a reference with it. Recall that we can use the Black-Scholes formula to price a European call or put for a market consisting when: the underlying ...
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Black Scholes and Monte Carlo implementations in Java [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Is there an all Java options-pricing library (preferably open source) besides jquantlib? Can anyone recommend a library with an implementation of Black Scholes and Monte ...
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Problems with a Black-Scholes modified equation

I haven't really studied much financial mathematics until about 2 months ago so I'm quite new to this stuff, so I'm sorry if this is a trivial question. At the moment I'm trying to work out what the ...
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Capital increase: which stock price to use as input to Black-Scholes formula?

For an exercise we have to calculate the theoretical value of a scrip / preferential right on its issue day (23 April) in the context of a capital increase. The scrips are issued on 23 April. The ...
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Black-Scholes explicit Euler implementation python

I've written some code for the explicit finite difference method to solve the BS equation. For certain sets of parameters (time-steps and asset-steps) I get a stable but wrong solution. For others, ...
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1answer
349 views

Method for finding a arbitrage opportunity when market price of call is incorrect

The solution of the Black-scholes equation is the price of a European call. And the option price assumes the underlying stock is a geometric Brownian motion with volatility $\sigma_{1}>0$. Suppose,...
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In which divisions of banking are the Greeks and Black Scholes equation applied? [closed]

I know that Black Scholes and the Greeks are important in market risk. In what other areas are they used?
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168 views

PDE and Black Scholes problem

Consider Black Scholes problem $\frac{\partial V}{\partial t} + \frac{\sigma^2 S^2}{2}\frac{\partial^2V}{\partial S^2} + rS\frac{\partial V}{\partial S} -rV = 0$ with boundary condition $V(S,T)=f(S)$, ...
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What is the main reasons to use Miltersen & Schartz (1998) model for commodity futures options

versus a standard Generalised Black and Scholes model (if there are any?) I have read the paper but I am not to sure about its practical implications as would people with more experience using this ...
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Calculating the error of a Trinomial Model

I've been trying to find a formula to obtain the maximum relative error a trinomial model with n timesteps will incur given all other inputs as compared to the standard BSM model. I'm concerned mostly ...
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Changes to option valuation for dollar-pegged underlying

In Russia, options on futures on the RTS index are priced in points instead of currency, with points being directly related to the value of the US dollar such that, for example, if the dollar rises, ...
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Why not delta of Call option is stochastic or random variable?

Delta of an option is defined as ratio of change in price of call option to change in price of underlying securities. If, $c_t$ is call option price at time $t$ and $S_t$ is the price of underlying ...
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Assuming Black-Scholes assumptions are correct, would the expected return from buying/selling options be 0?

I'm trying to solidify my understanding of options pricing and risk neutral distributions. If the assumptions of the Black-Scholes option pricing were true for an underlying (namely that the future ...
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578 views

How to get Geometric Brownian Motion's closed-form solution in Black-Scholes model?

The Black Scholes model assumes the following dynamics for the underlying, well known as the Geometric Brownian Motion: $$dS_t=S_t(\mu dt+\sigma dW_t)$$ Then the solution is given: $$S_t=S_0\,e^{\...
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99 views

A paradox about the American Put option price

Suppose a put option on a stock $S(t)$ following a Geometric Brownian motion is given, with strike $K$ and maturity $T$. Let us denote its price at time $t$ by $p(t,S(t))$. Now, by no-arbitrage ...
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315 views

Implied Vol vs. Calibrated Vol

Consider the Black-Scholes model, in which the log stock return over a time period $\Delta t$ is given by $$ \log(S_{i+1}/S_i) = (\mu - \sigma^2/2)\Delta t + \sigma \sqrt{\Delta t} Z_i, \qquad Z_i \...
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157 views

Skew in Black Scholes model

We are modeling Foreign exchange rates using Black Scholes model given below: $$F_{t}=F_{t−1} + (r_d−r_f)F_{t−1}dt + \sigma F_{t−1}dW_t$$ Where: $F_t$ and $F_{t−1}$ are FX rates at time $t$ and $t−...
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2k views

Calculate volatility from call option price

Given call option price, what is the simplest formula to get the volatility value ? Test Data: ...
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Black Scholes Formula for Collar Option

I am wondering if there exists a Black Scholes pricing formula for a collar option?
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Black-Scholes PDE & Terminal Condition

Just a quick question I was hoping someone could shed light on. So far I am familiar with the Black-Scholes PDE with the terminal condition at time $T$ been $V(t=T,S)=(S-K)^+$. I also understand ...
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45 views

Result linked to Black-Scholes evaluation

Why does this $$Se^{-D(T-t)}e^{-d_1^2/2} - Ee^{-r(T-t)}e^{-d_2^2/2}$$ equal to $0$? (Where $E$ is a strike)
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149 views

How to compute the volatility for the Merton's Model for Private firm?

After one day of research i did not figured how to compute the input volatility for PRIVATE COMPANY in order to calculate the PD. My goal is to compute the PD of each of my company in my portfolio, ...
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Pricing call option

Question: The price of a stock is 100. With equal probabilities, it either goes up to 130 or down to 70. What is the price of a 1 year call option with exercise price 100. Risk free rate is 5%. ...
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Implied Volatility Calculation

I want to calculate the implied volatility from the option data that I took from Bloomberg (call Option written on S&P500 index with the maturity of 19-Dec-2009 and strike of 1300), but volatility ...
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How market making in Index options is done?

I have been thinking about this one for last couple of days. With options on share we hedge on cash and the underlying equity as per Black-Scholes formulation. But I am confused on Index options. ...
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351 views

Is this arbitrage?

Assume the stockprice as in the Black-Scholes model (Geometric Brownian Motion): $$S_t=S_0e^{(\mu-\sigma^2/2)\cdot t+\sigma W_t}$$ Wouldn't there be an immediate arbitrage opportunity, to just buy ...
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244 views

Testing Black Scholes Analytical Options Pricer

I've written some code to calculate European option prices using the Black-Scholes analytical method. Can somebody recommend a good way to test that code? I have looked at option pricers online like ...
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Find the parameter $d$ of the Affine Option Pricing Model in Duffie, Pan and Singleton (2000)

According to Duffie, Pan and Singleton (2000) for any real number $y$ and any $a$ and $b \in \mathbb{R}^n$, the price of a security that pays $\exp(aX_t)$ at time $T$ in the event that $bX_t \leq y$ ...