# Tagged Questions

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### Why is there an upper limit on the premium of an ATM (!) call swaption in the Black76 model?

Trying to imply Black76 (where the forward swap rate is log-normal) volatilities as Bloomberg does in their VCUB screen we see holes at two regions: at short maturities due to negative rates which ...
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### Valuation of option on amortized IR swap

I'm currently valuing swaptions using an implied volatility surface and Black's formula. This formula is given by $$A (S\Phi(d_+) - K \Phi(d_-))$$ where  d_{\pm} = \frac{\log\left(S/K\right) \pm \...
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### how do we know if the volatility which is quoted in market is Normal (Bachelier model) or log normal (Black 76)?

in market, many instruments are quoted in volatility, but how we can tell what kind of volatility is this? is it normal volatility, or lognormal volatility. because it affect our hedging positions so ...
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### Likelihood of a caplet ending in the money

with what likelihood would one expect an ATM caplet to end up in the money? Just as a very rough guess, from real world experience. When I consider N(d2) from the Black formula, for spot = strike = 4%...
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### good R package for vectorized option pricing

I am using for now the package fOptions but it doesn't allow for vectorized computation of black76 prices and delta. Which package can be used to do that? As noted ...
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### BlackProcess' constructor $x_{0}$ argument in QuantLib

I am currently using BlackProcess to price options and I have a doubt related to the $x_{0}$ argument of the constructor: I've figured out it should be the forward ...
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### What is the Rho of an option on a futures contract priced using the Black 76 model?

I wanted to quickly confirm some simple calculations for the Black 76 greeks and was making use of the formulas on this website: http://riskencyclopedia.com/articles/black_1976/ I have an issue with ...