Shares of stock traded in a stock market. Equities represent the residual claim or interest of the most junior class of investors in assets, after all liabilities are paid.

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-2
votes
2answers
325 views

How to get/estimate ask/bid price for backtesting for OHLC data? [closed]

As you know, most of the EOD data available have only OHLC price. I used to do back-testing using the Close price as both bid and ask. however, in real world, the bid and ask spread is huge and the ...
0
votes
0answers
66 views

Real value of small numbers of shares of company stock

What is the real value of a single share of company stock? Let's ignore the "the value is what someone is willing to pay for it" angle. At some point, there has to be a real inherent value to ...
3
votes
1answer
153 views

Statistical Power and Active Management

I was reading an article recently that pointed out the dangers of using statistical inference in evaluating active managers as the power of statistical tests diminishes with the variance of the ...
-2
votes
1answer
214 views

Order book depth views preferences: order-by-order vs. total aggregated volume by price levels

Which is best? Or is it irrelevant? Hi! Considering Level 2 Data (Market Depth), I want to understand the advantages to have all the order book on an order-by-order basis (or tick-by-tick basis) ...
-4
votes
1answer
151 views

What is (High-Low) and (Open-Close) spread? [closed]

Spread is the difference between Bid and Ask. I'm confused what is High-Low Spread and Open-Close spread?
0
votes
0answers
199 views

Fluid dynamics for order book depth modelling

Would someone be able to give me an idea what type of fluid dynamics I could look at for modelling the order book? My background is more signals-related maths (correlation, covariance, fourier etc). ...
1
vote
0answers
79 views

Insignificant or significant explanatory power over risk adjusted returns?

Currently iam working on my master thesis which is about risk adjusted returns in the Asia Pacific REIT market. The goal of the paper is to determine/find variables that conceive explanatory power ...
4
votes
0answers
115 views

ERP and FF 3-factor model

In a more conservative estimate than a simple historical average, Fama & French estimate (US) equity risk premium at 3-4% (e.g., Equity Risk Premium, JF, 2002). This suggests that in an APT-like ...
0
votes
2answers
197 views

Change option B&S pricing

Consider a market composed by two stocks whose prices $X$ and $Y$ are given by B&S diffusion $$dX_t= \mu X_t dt+ \sigma X_tdW_t$$ $$dY_t= \mu Y_t dt+ \sigma Y_tdB_t$$ Supposing the market is ...
0
votes
0answers
67 views

Can the equity premium puzzle be explained by volatility-induced financial growth?

Citing the paper Volatility-induced financial growth (2007) by Dempster et al.: when asset returns are stationary ergodic, their volatility, together with any fixed-mix trading strategy, generates a ...
3
votes
1answer
124 views

At what volume would you move the price at the opening auction?

At many exchanges the opening price is set using an auction which takes place pre-opening (see here for example). During the auction you are allowed to place orders according to certain rules (you ...
0
votes
1answer
158 views

Initial margin requirement as percentage, not dollar value

Problem from Finan, FM/2 On 12-30-1998, you decided to bet on the January effect. ON that day, you bought 400 shares of Microsoft on margin at the price of 139 per share. The initial margin ...
0
votes
1answer
232 views

How to adjust local currency returns to US$/EUR return?

Iam doing research on return characteristics. As of today the scope of the research has changed from a local investor point of view to an international investor point of view. This basically means ...
2
votes
1answer
541 views

What exactly is an ISO order?

I have been looking this up and I feel like I keep running into different definitions. My understanding is that an ISO order is one which will get filled with the displayed quantity in a particular ...
2
votes
2answers
560 views

Calculating Geometric mean

I need to annualize daily returns for about 120 firms for over a period of 10 years. I chose to calculate the geometric return because 1) it is the actual return 2) to avoid the asymmetric effect of ...
3
votes
1answer
103 views

Can Central Index Keys (CIKs) issued by the SEC be reassigned?

Suppose company A has CIK 0000012345 and ceases to exist. At some later time, company B registers with the SEC to submit filings. Is it possible that company B will be assigned the same CIK ...
1
vote
0answers
117 views

Modelling long run relationship between dividend and earnings

I am working on a paper where I have to model the long run relationship between earnings and dividends. I have downloaded the raw data from shillers website. I have converted the series to ...
1
vote
1answer
121 views

How to deal with different amount of td's in computing Sharpe Ratio

In calculating the Sharpe Ratio, should I take into account the days were I have 0 return due to non-trading day? Another user posted a similar question but this was related to trading days with no ...
2
votes
1answer
135 views

OTC Equity Options' Dynamics

This only applies to options that do not have marketable equivalents since margin can be marked to them. I've never been able to find this on my goog. How is margin typically calculated for OTC ...
6
votes
3answers
374 views

Scanning a stock database for errors/flaws

I'm currently working on some matlab code that is supposed to check a stock database for any errors (missing values, wrong values, etc.). The reason for this is that after reading this post I came to ...
12
votes
4answers
4k views

data on historical stock price of bankrupt companies

does anybody know a site where I can download historical data on stocks including companies that have gone bankrupt such as lehman brothers? it appears that bankrupt companies no longer appear in the ...
2
votes
3answers
214 views

Leveraged and inverse leveraged ETFs - what is the exact defintion?

I just had a quick look at the daily returns for a few pairs of leveraged ETFs - it appears that the percent daily returns do not match perfectly. For instance, looking at FAS/FAZ, the returns for the ...
3
votes
3answers
755 views

Quick way to check what 'tape' a stock belongs to?

For the SIP feeds, there is the CTA and the UTP plan and they cover Tapes A,B and Tape C respectively. Is there an easy way to check on google what tape a stock would belong to? Particularly when it ...
1
vote
1answer
198 views

Regression giving the return on a stock

I have this regression equation: $$ R_{stock} = 3,28\% + 1,65*R_{market} $$ Where $R_{stock}$ is the expected return on a stock and $R_{market}$ being the market risk premium. I have a one-year ...
19
votes
7answers
2k views

How to design a custom equity backtester?

I was thinking about writing my own backtester and I realize I have to make some assumptions. So I was hoping I could post what I am planning on doing and hopefully some of you can give me some ideas ...
8
votes
2answers
611 views

Why do low standard deviation stocks tend to have superior future returns?

I've recently stumbled on something that really surprised me. These papers (1, 2) find that past standard deviation of returns is inversely related to future returns. That is, portfolio of low ...
14
votes
5answers
3k views

Is the stock price process a martingale or a Markov process?

Some people claim that the data-generating process for stocks is a "martingale" and that is has the "Markov property". Are they unrelated? Is it that the Markov property implies some sort of ...
4
votes
2answers
663 views

Cointegration trading: Ignoring pairs that aren't economically related

Cointegration trading question What's the state of the art when it comes to choosing proper subsets of stocks/assets where cointegrating relationships aren't ignored as (likely to be) spurious? For ...
10
votes
2answers
649 views

Missing step in stock price movement equations

Assuming a naive stochastic process for modelling movements in stock prices we have: $dS = \mu S dt + \sigma S \sqrt{dt}$ where S = Stock Price, t = time, mu is a drift constant and sigma is a ...
6
votes
3answers
743 views

How to calculate compound returns of leveraged ETFs?

Forewarning: this is a complete newbie question :-) I am starting to learn about ETFs by trying to do the numbers. When learning about the compounding effect in leveraged ETFs, I wanted to simulate ...
3
votes
0answers
74 views

Individual/casual investors and the bias towards blue-chip stocks?

There's quite a bit of research (example, [1]) teasing out the fact that home/casual/individual investors prefer stocks with large positive skewness. It surprised me, as I was reading a bunch of these ...
8
votes
1answer
658 views

Forward Adjusting Stock Prices?

How should one correctly forward adjust historical prices given a time series of Open, High, Low, Close, Return? Suppose that the data series is given below ('1' is the oldest interval; '5' is the ...
7
votes
1answer
221 views

Alternative liquidity measures

I'm going to write the MSc thesis on flight-to-liquidity phenomenon in stock markets and I'm interested in liquidity measures other than Amihud or bid-ask spread. What are some other popular measures ...
3
votes
1answer
267 views

How to calculate probability of touching a take-profit without touching a stop-loss?

How to calculate probability of touching a take-profit without touching a stop-loss (no-dividend stock, infinite time)?
1
vote
1answer
264 views

equity linked notes (bull/bear equity performance bonds)

I have to price what my lecturer calls "Bull and Bear Equity Performance Bonds". Basically there's dates $t_i \in [0,T]$, where $t_i - t_{i-1}$ is the same for all choice of $i$. On each date the bull ...
2
votes
1answer
139 views

Historical data on short rates

I would like to backtest a short-equity strategy. I'm looking for historical data on the availability of shares and cost to short certain stocks. Does anyone know of such data being available ...
3
votes
2answers
157 views

Can money technically flow in and out of stocks or asset classes?

For every buyer, there is a seller. Money can't 'flow' in and out of a stock, only the price changes. Is this applicable in the context of asset classes, for example, money market funds versus stocks? ...
5
votes
0answers
135 views

Testing for stock market herding over short periods

The literature has well established methods for testing stock market herding over a decent time window. Are there any ways that have appeared in the literature to test for stock market herding over ...
5
votes
2answers
141 views

Economic contagion to individual stocks (ideas for analysis)

I'm doing my undergraduate thesis on firm-level contagion. Specifically I look at a measure of performance over a financial crisis (e.g. raw stock returns), then run cross-sectional regressions with ...
6
votes
3answers
324 views

What is an acceptable error on implied volatility?

Given an implied volatility surface (on equity indexes) and a calibrated model, what is the range of error on implied volatility a trader would accept ? This obviously depends on the model used to ...
10
votes
3answers
1k views

Hedging stocks with VIX futures

It seems that VIX futures could be a great hedge for a long-only stock portfolio since they rise when stocks fall. But how many VIX futures should I buy to hedge my portfolio, and which futures ...
4
votes
1answer
798 views

SP500 sector weights - how do they change?

The weights of the nine S&P equity sector indexes vary over time. One can find measures of them in a number of different formats: S&P 500 Sector SPDRs - historical sector weights Here's ...
4
votes
2answers
168 views

Indexes/stocks with flat implied volatilities

After the 1987 crash, the S&P500 index implied volatility changed from nearly flat to negatively sloped. According to Rubinstein the Black-Scholes model was not so wrong when applied to the ...
3
votes
1answer
676 views

Commerical delayed stock quote feed that is redistributable?

I'm looking for a commercial delayed quote feed that will allow us to distribute delayed US stock market quotes to the public (ie. that will allow us to display US delayed quotes on the Internet). We ...
0
votes
2answers
553 views

How do I calculate weighted mean with negative weights?

I need to display in my system the amount of stocks that I own and the average price it took me to buy them. I am having a problem doing that when I include the selling. Lets say I bought 4 stocks ...
4
votes
3answers
1k views

How to normalize different instruments by volatility?

I'm trying to think on a way to normalize stocks to be on the same scale depending on their recent volatility. Is there some theoretical reference on the subject or and experience you can share?
1
vote
1answer
145 views

transaction size and liquidity in simulation of US stocks

i am developing a simulation trading in US stocks. i have 1 transaction a day per stock, assumed for simplicity to be executed at the daily closing price. in order to determine a reasonable maximal ...
4
votes
1answer
270 views

What is the relative performance of hard-to-borrow securities?

Is there any research on the equity return performance of hard-to-borrow securities? Many shops will simply screen for hard-to-borrow and eliminate these names from their short book. Anecdotally, ...
3
votes
1answer
549 views

Science behind options pricing into Earnings event

I am wondering about studies regarding the uncanny options pricing into public company's earnings reports. The phenomenon being that the price of a straddle before earnings costs near exactly the ...
6
votes
1answer
179 views

Estimate price movement per unit of volume for daily data

I'm working on backtesting a number of stock trading strategies and need to estimate how much the execution price will likely deviate from the historical close price for that asset using daily data; ...