Shares of stock traded in a stock market. Equities represent the residual claim or interest of the most junior class of investors in assets, after all liabilities are paid.

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-2
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1answer
431 views

Order book depth views preferences: order-by-order vs. total aggregated volume by price levels

Which is best? Or is it irrelevant? Hi! Considering Level 2 Data (Market Depth), I want to understand the advantages to have all the order book on an order-by-order basis (or tick-by-tick basis) ...
-4
votes
1answer
725 views

What is (High-Low) and (Open-Close) spread? [closed]

Spread is the difference between Bid and Ask. I'm confused what is High-Low Spread and Open-Close spread?
1
vote
0answers
292 views

Fluid dynamics for order book depth modelling

Would someone be able to give me an idea what type of fluid dynamics I could look at for modelling the order book? My background is more signals-related maths (correlation, covariance, fourier etc). ...
1
vote
0answers
106 views

Insignificant or significant explanatory power over risk adjusted returns?

Currently iam working on my master thesis which is about risk adjusted returns in the Asia Pacific REIT market. The goal of the paper is to determine/find variables that conceive explanatory power ...
0
votes
2answers
286 views

Change option B&S pricing

Consider a market composed by two stocks whose prices $X$ and $Y$ are given by B&S diffusion $$dX_t= \mu X_t dt+ \sigma X_tdW_t$$ $$dY_t= \mu Y_t dt+ \sigma Y_tdB_t$$ Supposing the market is ...
3
votes
1answer
144 views

At what volume would you move the price at the opening auction?

At many exchanges the opening price is set using an auction which takes place pre-opening (see here for example). During the auction you are allowed to place orders according to certain rules (you ...
1
vote
1answer
317 views

Initial margin requirement as percentage, not dollar value

Problem from Finan, FM/2 On 12-30-1998, you decided to bet on the January effect. ON that day, you bought 400 shares of Microsoft on margin at the price of 139 per share. The initial margin ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

How to adjust local currency returns to US$/EUR return?

Iam doing research on return characteristics. As of today the scope of the research has changed from a local investor point of view to an international investor point of view. This basically means ...
2
votes
1answer
1k views

What exactly is an ISO order?

I have been looking this up and I feel like I keep running into different definitions. My understanding is that an ISO order is one which will get filled with the displayed quantity in a particular ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Calculating Geometric mean

I need to annualize daily returns for about 120 firms for over a period of 10 years. I chose to calculate the geometric return because 1) it is the actual return 2) to avoid the asymmetric effect of ...
3
votes
1answer
125 views

Can Central Index Keys (CIKs) issued by the SEC be reassigned?

Suppose company A has CIK 0000012345 and ceases to exist. At some later time, company B registers with the SEC to submit filings. Is it possible that company B will be assigned the same CIK ...
1
vote
0answers
239 views

Modelling long run relationship between dividend and earnings

I am working on a paper where I have to model the long run relationship between earnings and dividends. I have downloaded the raw data from shillers website. I have converted the series to ...
1
vote
1answer
171 views

How to deal with different amount of td's in computing Sharpe Ratio

In calculating the Sharpe Ratio, should I take into account the days were I have 0 return due to non-trading day? Another user posted a similar question but this was related to trading days with no ...
2
votes
1answer
164 views

OTC Equity Options' Dynamics

This only applies to options that do not have marketable equivalents since margin can be marked to them. I've never been able to find this on my goog. How is margin typically calculated for OTC ...
6
votes
3answers
460 views

Scanning a stock database for errors/flaws

I'm currently working on some matlab code that is supposed to check a stock database for any errors (missing values, wrong values, etc.). The reason for this is that after reading this post I came to ...
2
votes
3answers
287 views

Leveraged and inverse leveraged ETFs - what is the exact defintion?

I just had a quick look at the daily returns for a few pairs of leveraged ETFs - it appears that the percent daily returns do not match perfectly. For instance, looking at FAS/FAZ, the returns for the ...
1
vote
1answer
259 views

Regression giving the return on a stock

I have this regression equation: $$ R_{stock} = 3,28\% + 1,65*R_{market} $$ Where $R_{stock}$ is the expected return on a stock and $R_{market}$ being the market risk premium. I have a one-year ...
8
votes
2answers
750 views

Why do low standard deviation stocks tend to have superior future returns?

I've recently stumbled on something that really surprised me. These papers (1, 2) find that past standard deviation of returns is inversely related to future returns. That is, portfolio of low ...
17
votes
5answers
5k views

Is the stock price process a martingale or a Markov process?

Some people claim that the data-generating process for stocks is a "martingale" and that is has the "Markov property". Are they unrelated? Is it that the Markov property implies some sort of ...
4
votes
2answers
908 views

Cointegration trading: Ignoring pairs that aren't economically related

Cointegration trading question What's the state of the art when it comes to choosing proper subsets of stocks/assets where cointegrating relationships aren't ignored as (likely to be) spurious? For ...
11
votes
2answers
750 views

Missing step in stock price movement equations

Assuming a naive stochastic process for modelling movements in stock prices we have: $dS = \mu S dt + \sigma S \sqrt{dt}$ where S = Stock Price, t = time, mu is a drift constant and sigma is a ...
6
votes
3answers
2k views

How to calculate compound returns of leveraged ETFs?

Forewarning: this is a complete newbie question :-) I am starting to learn about ETFs by trying to do the numbers. When learning about the compounding effect in leveraged ETFs, I wanted to simulate ...
3
votes
0answers
90 views

Individual/casual investors and the bias towards blue-chip stocks?

There's quite a bit of research (example, [1]) teasing out the fact that home/casual/individual investors prefer stocks with large positive skewness. It surprised me, as I was reading a bunch of these ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Forward Adjusting Stock Prices?

How should one correctly forward adjust historical prices given a time series of Open, High, Low, Close, Return? Suppose that the data series is given below ('1' is the oldest interval; '5' is the ...
7
votes
1answer
352 views

Alternative liquidity measures

I'm going to write the MSc thesis on flight-to-liquidity phenomenon in stock markets and I'm interested in liquidity measures other than Amihud or bid-ask spread. What are some other popular measures ...
3
votes
1answer
364 views

How to calculate probability of touching a take-profit without touching a stop-loss?

How to calculate probability of touching a take-profit without touching a stop-loss (no-dividend stock, infinite time)?
1
vote
1answer
334 views

equity linked notes (bull/bear equity performance bonds)

I have to price what my lecturer calls "Bull and Bear Equity Performance Bonds". Basically there's dates $t_i \in [0,T]$, where $t_i - t_{i-1}$ is the same for all choice of $i$. On each date the bull ...
2
votes
1answer
170 views

Historical data on short rates

I would like to backtest a short-equity strategy. I'm looking for historical data on the availability of shares and cost to short certain stocks. Does anyone know of such data being available ...
5
votes
2answers
220 views

Can money technically flow in and out of stocks or asset classes?

For every buyer, there is a seller. Money can't 'flow' in and out of a stock, only the price changes. Is this applicable in the context of asset classes, for example, money market funds versus stocks? ...
6
votes
3answers
366 views

What is an acceptable error on implied volatility?

Given an implied volatility surface (on equity indexes) and a calibrated model, what is the range of error on implied volatility a trader would accept ? This obviously depends on the model used to ...
11
votes
3answers
1k views

Hedging stocks with VIX futures

It seems that VIX futures could be a great hedge for a long-only stock portfolio since they rise when stocks fall. But how many VIX futures should I buy to hedge my portfolio, and which futures ...
4
votes
2answers
178 views

Indexes/stocks with flat implied volatilities

After the 1987 crash, the S&P500 index implied volatility changed from nearly flat to negatively sloped. According to Rubinstein the Black-Scholes model was not so wrong when applied to the ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

Commerical delayed stock quote feed that is redistributable?

I'm looking for a commercial delayed quote feed that will allow us to distribute delayed US stock market quotes to the public (ie. that will allow us to display US delayed quotes on the Internet). We ...
1
vote
2answers
1k views

How do I calculate weighted mean with negative weights?

I need to display in my system the amount of stocks that I own and the average price it took me to buy them. I am having a problem doing that when I include the selling. Lets say I bought 4 stocks ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

How to normalize different instruments by volatility?

I'm trying to think on a way to normalize stocks to be on the same scale depending on their recent volatility. Is there some theoretical reference on the subject or and experience you can share?
1
vote
1answer
176 views

transaction size and liquidity in simulation of US stocks

i am developing a simulation trading in US stocks. i have 1 transaction a day per stock, assumed for simplicity to be executed at the daily closing price. in order to determine a reasonable maximal ...
4
votes
1answer
474 views

What is the relative performance of hard-to-borrow securities?

Is there any research on the equity return performance of hard-to-borrow securities? Many shops will simply screen for hard-to-borrow and eliminate these names from their short book. Anecdotally, ...
4
votes
1answer
745 views

Science behind options pricing into Earnings event

I am wondering about studies regarding the uncanny options pricing into public company's earnings reports. The phenomenon being that the price of a straddle before earnings costs near exactly the ...
6
votes
1answer
262 views

Estimate price movement per unit of volume for daily data

I'm working on backtesting a number of stock trading strategies and need to estimate how much the execution price will likely deviate from the historical close price for that asset using daily data; ...
-3
votes
1answer
146 views

Methods for distributing cash into allocation

Are there any methods/techniques that cover distributing cash into a specific percent of a portfolio asset class while gaining the best average price? As a simple example, a portfolio starts with ...
8
votes
4answers
504 views

Position management in presence of continuous forecast

Let's say we have an equity liquidity-providing model that was fitted on 1 minute bar periods. The model forecasts the 1-min next period return given the activity of the previous bars. Now, when we ...
18
votes
3answers
5k views

What are the best sources for equity quantitative research?

What are the best sources of quantitative finance research in equities? I will list a couple and note an asterisk if the research is available by request (i.e. non-clients) or online: BAC-Merrill ...
-2
votes
1answer
155 views

Different stocks with the same stock code [closed]

Is it possible to have different stocks with the same stock code on different stock exchanges.
2
votes
0answers
553 views

What is an appropriate hedge ratio for hedging a credit instrument with equity of the same issuer?

Given a bond and a stock issued by the same issuer, what is the appropriate ratio of bond-to-stock one should hold in order to minimize the specific risk to that issuer? Equivalently, what is the ...
7
votes
1answer
268 views

How to assign equity analyst recommendations to a common, numeric scale?

Yahoo finance conveniently provides historic ratings from a number of analysts. Unfortunately, each analyst seems to use a different scale: buy/hold/sell, perform/outperform/neutral, overweight/equal ...
5
votes
1answer
402 views

looking for regulations regarding stock symbol reuse in the US

in june 2009, GM has filed for bankruptcy. trading has moved from NYSE to OTC pink sheets, and the symbol changed to GMGMQ and later to MTLQQ. in november 2010 a new GM symbol started trading on NYSE. ...
6
votes
1answer
429 views

NASDAQ TotalView ITCH order reference number number characteristics

I am building a custom hash implementation for storing NASDAQ ITCH order messages. Obviously this is keyed on the order reference number and I am wondering if these numbers are sequential, random or ...
8
votes
1answer
488 views

Any research paper on stop loss?

Has there been any rigorous study on stop loss ? When to apply it? Has it been shown to work through proper statistical backtests? I am interested in Equities, preferably European stocks.
2
votes
0answers
180 views

Can a higher P/E ratio be beneficial under certain circumstances? [closed]

I am new to investing. I understand that the P/E ratio along with other data can be used to determine whether a stock may or may not be undervalued. Are there situations where a HIGH P/E is actually ...
7
votes
3answers
667 views

How to account for jumps in intraday data when calculating beta?

I am calculating betas on intraday trade data at 15-minute intervals. For simplicity sake, let's assume I am modeling \begin{equation} Y = \beta * X + c \end{equation} where $Y$ is the return of XLF ...