# Tagged Questions

Econometric model that have the purpose to measure the effect of different risk measures on portfolio asset returns.

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### Hedge Fund risk management on a daily basis

Since Hedge Funds/Fund of Funds report on a monthly basis usually within 10 days after the month end, monitoring and managing (hedging) potential risks is quite a difficult task. Having done some ...
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### Is there a way to meaningfully generate daily returns from monthly?

I have a set of 7 investments in a portfolio and I need to optimize the weightings based on some exposures to various markets/styles/economic factors. I was hoping to do some sort of simple exposure ...
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### Back to Basics — Cumulative Returns

I recently came across a chart of Fama-French's (FF) HML factor cumulative performance. I first saw this in an article by AQR's Cliff Asness: http://www.institutionalinvestor.com/Article/3315202/Asset-...
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### Modeling transaction cost with single-counted turnover ratio

Why do people use "Single-Counted" turnover ratio when modeling for transaction cost. I read a paper (Factor Investing in the Corporate Bond Market) which uses only the purchase side as turnover ...
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### When are factors returns in asset pricing and how do we construct them?

I am very certain that the temperature in New York's Central Park plays a super-significant role in stock returns, so I take its daily averages and I want to test it in factor model. Cochrane (...
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### Testing Valuation, Size and Momentum (proprietary factors) from 1988-2013: No evidence of driving cross-sectional returns

I am currently testing whether three proprietary factors - Valuation, Size and Momentum - explain cross-sectional returns. A sample of 3000 securities was tested using Fama-MacBeth two-pass ...
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### Optimization: Factor model versus asset-by-asset model

In portfolio management one often has to solve problems of the quadratic form $$w^T \Sigma w + w^T c \rightarrow Min$$ with portfolio weights $w \in \mathbb{R}^N$ a constant $c \in \mathbb{R}^N$ and ...
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### Why is Weighted Least Squares necessary in fundamental factor model?

Why is Weighted Least Squares necessary in fundamental factor model while it is not in a standard Macroeconomic factor model? I understand that $\mathbb{E}[\epsilon^2_{it}]=\sigma_i^2$ varies across ...
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### Why should a factor not priced and yet is relevant to the return generating process

I am reading Elton's AFA presidential adress article here. http://people.stern.nyu.edu/eelton/working_papers/Expected_Return_Realized_Return.pdf In the paper, he is warning against using the average ...
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### Interpretation of “alpha” — industry vs academia

Disclaimer: I come from an academic finance perspective and hence I will definitely have my inherent biases in this question. How does one think about "alpha" in portfolio management? In particular, ...
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### Non-Negative Matrix Factorization - Estimating the Mean

How do you estimate the mean in a Non-Negative Matrix Factorization framework? It is obvious and well known how to estimate the covariance matrix, how ever I also need the estimated mean. I'm ...
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### What is the main reasons to use Miltersen & Schartz (1998) model for commodity futures options

versus a standard Generalised Black and Scholes model (if there are any?) I have read the paper but I am not to sure about its practical implications as would people with more experience using this ...
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### Black Litterman: Is it possible to have multiple views (from different sources) on the same asset?

From the basics of Black Litterman I understand that each view on a stock is implemented via the pick matrix P with the expected value of the views in Q. I have read several papers where each stock ...
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### Multi-factor APT model in practice: non-zero mean factors, observations needed and portfolios

I'm going to build a multi-factor APT model for the Swiss market starting from the work made by Chen, Roll and Ross (to which I will add and test some additional factors). I have some doubts though: ...
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### How to combine regression models?

Say I have three data sets of size $n$ each: $y_1$ = heights of people from the US only $y_2$ = heights of men from the whole world $y_3$ = heights of women from the whole world And I build a ...
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### How to understand stock return comovement

In his book "Asset Pricing" chapter 20, Cochrane said For example, suppose that average returns were higher for stocks whose ticker symbols start later in the alphabet. (Maybe investors search ...
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### Using cross-sectional factor model (BARRA type) returns in a time series factor model (Fama-French type)?

This may be seen as a follow up question for the previous discussion on time-series vs cross-sectional factor models: Which approach to estimating fundamental factor models is better, cross-sectional (...
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### Variable Selection with Kalman Filter

I'm trying to estimate factor loadings on portfolios over time for portfolios that are traded pretty frequently. I have a sense that several portfolios are loading on the Fama-French HML factor ...
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### Neglect the positive values in negative interest rates modelling?

The magnitude of the negative interested rate should vary correlated with the increase in fixed assets prices and with cross-currency basis spreads. Could their volatility / correlation coefficients,...