# Tagged Questions

Securities which obligate the borrower/issuer to make payments on a fixed schedule. Fixed income securities include sovereign, corporate and municipal bonds, corporate loans, and securitized lending (e.g., ABS). "Fixed" refers only to the schedule of obligatory payments, not the amount, and may ...

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### Is it possible for two securities to have the same first 8 characters of a cusip, but differ in the check sum?

CUSIP is a 9 character long identifier. The last digit is a check sum checking the first 8 previous characters. This seems to me that it is not possible for two securities to have the same 8 ...
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### Total return index for interest rates (EURIBOR 3M)

I would like to calculate a daily total return index for the EURIBOR 3M. • Should I freeze at the beginning of each qurter die rate? (With this methology the developing of the index depends on the ...
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### Various ways to choose bonds for a butterfly strategy?

What are the various ways to choose bonds for a butterfly strategy? For eg., I already know the most common one i.e., choosing short and long term for the wings (barbell) and the medium term for the ...
223 views

### How to calibrate the Hull-White model using cap prices?

I'm given cap prices and swap rates, and i'm trying to calibrate the Hull-White model to them. I then want to use the model in order to price a swaption. I know that the model can be calibrated from ...
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### Help with integrating stochastic calculus expression from yield curve model

I am very rusty on stochastic calculus, and I am having trouble integrating the following simple term from a yield curve model: $$z(t)=\int_0^t\exp(-k(t-s))dW(s)$$ Any suggestions appreciated.
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### Where can I find an historical data source for Fixed Income instruments?

We would like to find a data source for fixed income instruments. The information we would like is: Issuer Credit rating Terms Price The information needs to be available over a period, for ...
146 views

### UST Yield Curve Forecasting - Bond Structure Testing

I have a project in mind that I am working on, but have little idea where to start. I am a relative newcomer to python (about 1 years exp.) and limited knowledge of quant finance. What I would like ...
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### Key Rate Duration for MBSs greater than Key Rate Tenor

Key Rate Durations (KRD) are essentially some fixed income instrument's price sensitivity to a non-parallel shift in interest rates (i.e., a shift at the "Key" Rate). For example, a 10-year bond's ...
797 views

### Par Yield Curves vs Zero Curves

Does it make sense to look at par yield curve for German bonds in the current environment? Because low rates mean that a lot of bonds are trading above much above par (even around 150!). I would ...
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### In bond pricing, is negative convexity better than positive convexity?

Say that I have two bonds and one of them has positive convexity and the other negative. Which one is better (assuming that you only care about convexity)? I understand that high convexity is ...
4k views

### how to calculate a cross-currency swap in basis pt?

This question has been bugging me for awhile now and I've been trying to find a definite answer, however, no avail... My question, in specific, relates to the USD/CNH CCS rate. From what I understand ...
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### Does Nelson-Siegel require adjustments to yield curve input data?

I am attempting to gain a better understanding of the limitations of the Nelson-Siegel model as described in Estimating the Yield Curve Using the Nelson-Siegel Model. As I have been playing around ...
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### (Beginer on bond market) References on callable bond's pricing

I am searching for references on pricing callable bonds. I've not find any rigorous mathematical approach on the web. All I found was some soft approaches in a discrete framework. Edit: First of ...
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### Incompatibility of Lognormal Forward Model (LMM\BGM) and Lognormal Swap Model

In his paper On the distributional distance between the Libor and the Swap market models (and also in his book about IR modeling) D.Brigo says: 10, 11, 12 are defined in the end of message. Do I ...
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### Variance of “hedged” term structure portfolio increasing?

I'm attempting to use PCA to hedge a small fixed income portfolio. I start with one particular bond and chose the nearest other bond to hedge the 1st principle component. This decreases the portfolio ...
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### Calculate bond returns from yields

I have to construct and evaluate portfolio of bonds and stocks, namely I need to get return on portfolio, standard deviation and sharpe ratios. I have weekly data that contains stock prices, and I ...
1k views

### How to price a bond without paper during interview?

I heard that this kind of questions appear a lot in the interviews. Here is one I saw from Galssdoor: Price a bond with coupon rate 3%, yield 9% and maturity 10 years. What is the typical way to do ...
3k views

### What's the intuition behind DTS(duration times spread) in fixed income?

I am having some difficulty grasping the concept of using DTS to measure credit risk. In the equity world, one typical measure of risk is beta, which is quite well-defined as the exposure to a common ...
3k views

### Bloomberg Pricing Sources: TRAC vs. BGN vs. BVAL etc

Sorry, I'm very new to using Bloomberg as a tool, so please forgive the naïve question. I couldn't find much information after some cursory online searches, so I figured I'd ask here. Particularly ...
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### Fixed Income Swap Sharpe Ratio Calculation

I have a Fixed Income based strategy based on swaps. Q1.) Given that swaps are based on a "notional" principal and no actual exchange of principal's takes place, is it fair to assume a funding cost ...
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### How can I break down the change in value for an inflation-linked bond

I am trying to decompose the change in value of an inflation-linked bond into two constituent parts: 1) That due to changing nominal rates on the issuer's non-linked bonds 2) That due to changing ...
255 views

### Pricing Callable Floating Rate Note

I have a question concerning pricing of a callable floating rate note (FRN). I have not found a lot of literature concerning callable FRNs (although a lot for callable bonds). With my understanding, ...
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### 'C' Marker in PSA for CMO

I will occasionally get a 'C' as part of a PSA in my CMO oddlot data. Most of the numbers will be normal - 277, 297, 269. Then 10C, 20C, 13C. What does the C represent?
647 views

### Cost of Carry Bear Flattener

I was reading a report last week that “the carry on a 2s5s gilt curve flattener is negative to the tune of 10bp over 6 months” and I realised I have little understanding of this concept and ...
958 views

### Bond Portfolio Immunization - Duration Matching

**Question is at the bottom** Suppose you have a portfolio of bonds A, B, and C with the following characteristics: (the "Frequency" column is the # of coupon pmts per year and also the # of ...
149 views

### Cross-sectional volatility vs temporal volatility

Volatility is usually defined as the standard deviation of returns, but sometimes it is calculated as the standard deviation of cross-sectional return divided by the square root of time, where other ...
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### Why is the equity premium not arbitraged away?

The Equity Risk Premium Puzzle concerns the observation that equity returns are generally greater than bond returns. The puzzle is well known and widely studied, what is keeping investors from ...
4k views

### How is PnL calculated

In Fixed Income, I know that bonds PnL are evaluated depending on where the price lies on price/yield curve at the end of the day, compared to where it started from at beginning of the day. The ...
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### How to calculate the pre-tax cost of debt for a mix of bonds allotted to a company?

I need to calculate the effective interest rate a company X is paying on the total debt it has been loaned (to arrive at the Cost of Debt) for the FY 2011-12. Its long term borrowings are a mix of ...
777 views

### Bloomberg Zero Coupon Rates

As some of your may know from my other posts, I am working on a Dynamic Nelson Siegel (DNS) based relative value trading model. On simulated data (which satisfies all the assumptions) of the DNS it ...
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### OIS discounting pre and post crises

I have a Dynamic Nelson Siegel (DNS) based rv model. I want to know if I can use pre and post-crises curves interchangeably in my calibration and out of sample testing. I.e. those without OIS ...
789 views

### Pricing a FixedRateBond in Quantlib: yield vs TermStructure

I am trying to price a simple U.S. treasury in QuantLib, using two methods. The first method calls FixedRatebond.dirtyPrice(...), passing in a YTM and other parameters. The second method involves ...
105 views

### meaning of discount term in FRA value

Consider a forward rate agreement on LIBOR (say), which starts 2 months from now, expires after 3 months and has strike $K$, and is based on $3M$ LIBOR -- $FRA_{2\times 5}$. Now the present value of ...
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### Introducing credit risk to an already implemented interest rate model

Do any standard/generic approaches exist on how to extend an interest rate model to incorporate credit risk? The first thing that comes to mind would be to just model the credit spread separately - ...
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### How are quants able to verify whether their calculated prices are any good

This question is related to the discussion on Model Validation Criteria However it appeard to be very high level to me and I would like to go more into detail. Not working at a pricing desk the ...
522 views

### Interpolating spot rates given intermittent coupon-bond prices.

I'm trying to bootstrap spot rates given coupon-paying bond data. To simplify my problem, assume we are working with only 3 given data, the price/coupon rate on semi-annual bonds maturing in 0.5, 1, ...
197 views

### Attributing the change in NII to Shift, Twist and Butterfly

The movement of the zero rate curves can be decomposed into a shift movement (the level of interest rates) and a twist movement (the slope of the curve) and butterfly (the curvature of the curve). If ...
115 views

### How can foreign investment have a negative figure?

Just looking at http://www.tradingeconomics.com/japan/foreign-bond-investment Wondering how can foreign bond investment be negative? You can have 0 investment, you can have positive investment, but ...