Securities which obligate the borrower/issuer to make payments on a fixed schedule. Fixed income securities include sovereign, corporate and municipal bonds, corporate loans, and securitized lending (e.g., ABS). "Fixed" refers only to the schedule of obligatory payments, not the amount, and may ...

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12
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11answers
40k views

What is the difference between Option Adjusted Spread (OAS) and Z-spread?

I am preparing for the CFA level 2 exam, I got confused by the concept Z-spread and OAS. When a call option is added to a bond, since it is not favorable to the bond buyer, they would require more ...
11
votes
1answer
4k views

How to estimate probability of default from bond prices?

How do you use bond prices/yields to infer probabilities of default? I would think of it as follows: Create a relationship between default free (e.g., Germany) and defaultable (e.g., Greece) bond ...
10
votes
1answer
230 views

How to handle coupon payments when pricing a bond with an embedded option?

I'm using a binomial tree to price a bond that has an embedded call or put option. On every node that has a coupon payment, do you include the coupon payment then max/min out the value, or do you max/...
10
votes
1answer
686 views

Hedging long municipal bond portfolio using BMA/SIFMA

A question from one of my members. Anyone have experience hedging a long municipal bond portfolio using BMA / SIFMA swaps? Anything you can share regarding sizing and structuring the swap and ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the basis risk between cash and futures government bonds?

I am currently working in a team responsible for maintaining a simple risk application for our bond desk and I am interested in knowing how to provide some sort of basic basis risk metric. Our desk ...
9
votes
2answers
5k views

How to calibrate Hull-White from zero curve?

I am interested in calibrating a Hull-White model to the market. I do not, however, have data on anything except the market zero curves, as all derivatives are being traded OTC. My plan is to ...
9
votes
4answers
3k views

How to get list of all CUSIPS/ISIN?

I want a list of all CUSIPs/ISINs. It would be nice if they were also categorized (e.g. Bonds/Funds etc). Where can I get such a data?
9
votes
1answer
436 views

Do people use unbounded interest rate models, and what alternatives exist?

A simple interest rate model in discrete time is the autoregressive model, $$ I_{n+1} = \alpha I_n+w_n $$ where $\alpha\in [0,1)$ and $w_n\geq 0$ are i.i.d. random variables. When working with ruin ...
9
votes
1answer
565 views

How to build the short end of a zero coupon curve for non-core Eurozone countries?

I am in the process of building zero coupon curves for some countries in the Eurozone. I have the following data sets: Euribor and EONIA Swap rates Bond price and yields The bond prices (and thus ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Is duration additive? $C_{newDur}=A_{fundDur}w_{a} + B_{fundDur}w_{b}$?

Suppose quantified duration (like Macaulay duration with changing intervals) $Dur = \frac{\sum t_{i} PV_{i}}{\sum PV_{i}}$ and two funds having durations $D_{a}$ and $D_{b}$. You own them in the ...
8
votes
1answer
275 views

Pricing Treasury futures

I've recently learned that at the delivery of Treasury futures the short side can decide which of the $n$ Treasury bonds (with relevant maturities) to deliver. If the short side chooses to deliver the ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Can one use options on Treasury futures to hedge a portfolio?

Can one use options on Treasury bond futures to hedge a typical fixed income portfolio? If so, how can one estimate the duration for an option on a Treasury futures contract, and taking this a step ...
8
votes
1answer
580 views

Modified Durations of Different Noncallable Bonds and function of Maturity

I'm hoping someone could help me understand this subject better. Basically I am reading a book and it shows a table ...
7
votes
3answers
5k views

What is a real world example of negative forward interest rate?

As the title says, I am looking for a real world example where a forward interest rate is negative. Theoretically this is not a problem at all, if I look for a 3M forward interest rate that starts ...
7
votes
4answers
946 views

What is the connection between default probabilities calculated using the credit rating and the price of a CDS?

I'm working on a tool to price Credit Default Swaps. I've already done the standard pricing tools. I'm working on a pricing tool which uses the credit rating for the default probabilities used in the ...
7
votes
1answer
177 views

Why can CDS indices be used as a bond market index?

I don't understand why the iTraxx indices family, which are credit default swap indices, are in practice often used to gauge the bond market. How are CDS prices related to bonds prices? And what other ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Is Duration really the slope of the Price-Yield curve?

When looking at the Price-vs-Yield graph for a fixed rate instrument, we are often told that the duration is the slope of that curve. But is that really right? Duration is (change in price) divided ...
7
votes
2answers
523 views

Is there a comprehensive reference book on US fixed income conventions?

In Canadian fixed income markets there is a nice handbook called Canadian Conventions in Fixed Income Markets (PDF). It contains detailed market standard pricing formulas for calculating prices, ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Why is the SABR volatility model not good at pricing a constant maturity swap (CMS)?

I have heard that the SABR volatility model was not good at pricing a constant maturity swap (CMS). How is that?
6
votes
2answers
423 views

Why is there a price difference between 30 year principal and interest STRIPS?

Sorry if this is obvious, I am not a professional. I like to trade 30 year treasury zero's. I have noticed that the price for a 30 year principal payment is never the same as a 30 year interest ...
6
votes
2answers
1k views

Closed-form formula for approximate maximum duration of a bond?

In teaching myself about bonds, I am writing some software, one piece of which will calculate the maturity of a bond given the yield curve as a function and a requested duration. The tricky part is ...
6
votes
2answers
391 views

How do bond pricing formulae differ between the US, UK and the Euro zone?

Let's restrict the scope of the question a little bit: I'm interested to learn about major differences in pricing formulae for nominal government bonds. The pricing formulae for inflation-linked bonds ...
6
votes
1answer
425 views

Definition of gearings, spreads and curve in RQuantLib's Floating Rate Bond function

Consider the RQuantLib package function FloatingRateBond(). This takes as inputs gearings ...
6
votes
1answer
1k views

About Option Adjusted Spread, rate curves and bonds comparison

I have few questions about using OAS as a measure of risk: does OAS allow for comparison between bonds with and without embedded options (e.g. a callable bond against a plain vanilla one against a ...
6
votes
1answer
498 views

Bond Convexity Treasuries Futures

I know long duration bonds, on a a single bond basis, exhibit convexity however do treasury futures prices and the 10 yr yield exhibit the same property? Below is a plot of continious ten year ...
6
votes
1answer
864 views

Implied forward rates puzzle

Here's an interesting cocktail puzzle related to the term structure of interest rates. One of the primary competing theories for explaining the term structure of rates is the Rational Exepctations ...
6
votes
5answers
182 views

Investment Grade Bond vs Junk Bond, whose duration is larger?

Just wondering how to calculate duration when take credit risk into consideration. I think if duration is calculated as weighted average of cashflow time, and weights are calculated using present ...
6
votes
1answer
336 views

Do you have a validation set for Libor Market Model implementation?

I'm trying to calibrate a Libor Market Model (LMM) in Matlab with my user-defined function, not their package. I already fitted the market volatilities using SABR but failed to simulate the ...
6
votes
1answer
140 views

Should we apply practical constraints on the distribution of monte carlo paths?

to limit interest rate paths to a 'reasonable' range (if we could define reasonable). Now we calibrate log-normal skew and mean reversion monthly to robust basket of atm swaptions and in and out caps....
6
votes
0answers
253 views

is there a mapping from Altman Z-score for private companies to bond ratings or probability of default?

On wikipedia, there is a formula to calculate the Altman Z-score for private companies: Z-score estimated for private firms: T1 = (Current Assets − Current Liabilities) / Total Assets T2 = Retained ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

Does the debt load affect the volatility of equity?

Does the debt load of a company have an impact on the stock price of a company and its volatility? Also, how does the market react to the announcement of a company issuing bonds?
5
votes
1answer
158 views

Arbitrage with freshly issued bonds

I recently heard someone mention an arbitrage strategy involving selling freshly issued bonds and buying the "old batch" as it has shown that the liquidity in the fresh batch motivates/drives up these ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

How would I value a perpetual bond with an embedded option?

I am trying to work out how to value the following transactions. It should be straight forward, since it breaks down into a series of well known instruments, yet I am not sure how to evaluate it: ...
5
votes
1answer
465 views

How to value a floor when a loan is callable?

Certain bank loans pay a spread above a floating-rate interest rate (typically LIBOR) subject to a floor. I would like to find the value of this floor to the investor. Assume for this example that ...
5
votes
1answer
150 views

Seeming arbitrage in excess reserves

In the US banks are required to store 10% of their deposits in cash in the form of Fed Funds. Due to misbalance of demand and supply, some banks borrow such cash from others; the volume averaged ...
5
votes
1answer
571 views

Can duration gap analysis be applied to mortgages?

Can a mortgage loan be treated like a bond and its duration calculated using the bond duration formula? More precisely, can I calculate the loan portfolio duration for duration gap analysis, with ...
5
votes
1answer
3k views

Correct way to calculate bond's Yield-to-Horizon

I'm creating some .Net libraries for bond pricing and verifying its correctness with a bond pricing excel spreadsheet (Bond Pricing and Yield from Chrisholm Roth) but I believe it calculates the Yield ...
5
votes
1answer
558 views

What are some simple algorithms for hedging vanilla bonds?

My team will soon be implementing an auto hedger for our bond trading desk which will be integrated tightly with our risk application and I am interested in researching how this may work. Any advice ...
5
votes
0answers
55 views

What type of interpolation should be used in key rate perturbation models?

When perturbing a key rate in order to assess sensitivity of portfolio value, what sort of interpolation is standard? A book I am looking at says linear, but this seems pretty unrealistic to me--and ...
4
votes
3answers
363 views

Default Probability Implied in Bond Prices?

Say I am trying to find the probability of default on JP Morgan implied by the price of their fixed income assets. Can this be done? Are there any pitfalls to this approach? I have heard of this ...
4
votes
4answers
326 views

Why is the equity premium not arbitraged away?

The Equity Risk Premium Puzzle concerns the observation that equity returns are generally greater than bond returns. The puzzle is well known and widely studied, what is keeping investors from ...
4
votes
4answers
969 views

What's the algorithm behind Excel's ACCRINT?

This question was originally posted on Stackoverflow: As part of the Formula.js project, I'm trying to re-implement Excel's ACCRINT function (in JavaScript, but the language should not matter). I've ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

What is the best alternative of Quantlib library

We need to build a Fixed Income Portfolio Risk Analytics solution. Somehow due to administrative reason we can't use Quantlib which is written in C++, even call it through SWIG via JNI. We have tried ...
4
votes
1answer
535 views

Yield curve fitting example in Wilmott on Quant Finance p.528

In Wilmott on Quantitative Finance Vol. 2, p. 528, Section 31.4.2, is given a power series expansion for a zero coupon bond $$Z(r,t;T)=1+a(r)(T-t)+b(r)(T-t)^2+c(r)(T-t)^3+\dots$$ then it says to ...
4
votes
1answer
184 views

U.S. Rate Hike Prediction

In a recent ft.com video an analyst mentioned that markets postponed their Fed rate hike expectation from September to around November 2015 due to the CNY devaluation, based on the "shift" of some "...
4
votes
1answer
821 views

How to price a bond at specified dates in QuantLib

I am wondering what's the most efficient way (i.e. the method which involves the fewest arguments) to price a bond at a specified date, e.g. a future date (as instance, 6 months from now) in QuantLib. ...
4
votes
2answers
64 views

What does the difference between YTM of an inflation linked treasury bond and a comparable treasury bond represent?

I'm trying to understand yield to maturity of treasury bonds. For example, I have a 20 year inflation linked treasury bond which pays a inflation linked spread over a given fixed rate, and a 20 year ...
4
votes
2answers
321 views

Is it true that pricing an IR swap doesn't require any stochastic model but calculation of the PFE of an IR swap would?

Pricing an IR swap doesn't require any stochastic model but calculation of the PFE for an IR swap would require the Hull White Model or any other stochastic short rate or forward rate model. Is this ...
4
votes
2answers
321 views

Practical implementation of Libor Market Model

I am trying to implement a project about the BGM model, suggested in the book "The Concepts and Practice of mathematical finance" by Mark Joshi. My question is related to the forward volatility ...
4
votes
2answers
935 views

VaR for corporate bonds

I am trying to create a simple risk calculation for the portfolio (ignoring correlations for the moment). I have some corporate bonds with limited daily price changes. Any one have ideas how I can get ...