# Tagged Questions

An interest rate is the rate at which interest is paid by a borrower (debtor) for the use of money that they borrow from a lender (creditor).

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### What's Risk-Neutral in an Interest Rate Model?

In Shreve II, on p. 265 he states the Hull-White interest rate model as $$dR(u) = \left( a(u) - b(u)R(u)\right) dt + \sigma(u)d\tilde{W}(u),$$ and then mentions "...$\tilde{W}(u)$ is a Brownian ...
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### Finding the Interest Compounded with Bank Advertising Yield

A bank is advertising 9.5% accounts that yield 9.84% annually. How often is the interest compounded. Answer is Quarterly. I've been trying to look for the formula for this; it doesnt seem to be ...
675 views

I'm having trouble with the Ho-Lee model for short rates and differentiating between how to find the values for the free parameter λ versus using the model to predict future rates. The Ho-Lee model ...
710 views

### BDT model implementation

I am looking for a nice and readable description of how to implement BDT model: $d log(r(t)) = [\theta(t)-\frac{\sigma'(t)}{\sigma(t)}log(r(t))]dt + \sigma(t) dW$. I assume I already have steady-...
815 views

### Applicability of PCA to get historical volatilities to calibrate interest rates trees

My question in short is as follows: can I take main principal component of historical covariance matrix and use it as historical volatilities when fitting a binomial tree? Here's more detailed ...
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### Why is my YTM incorrect? How does accrued interest play into Yield to Maturity?

I'm writing some software that includes a feature to calculate Yield to Maturity for a Bond. I'm using an HP 10bii Financial Calculator to double check the answers produced by my software. I'm running ...
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### Benchmarking option pricing under stochastic interest rates

I priced a long-term option (10 or 20 years) using two different models: one assumes constant interest rates, the other assumes stochastic interest rates. Is there a way (e.g. a benchmark) to ...
342 views

### Basic LIBOR curve question

I'm new to the quant finance and have a very basic question about LIBOR curve. LIBOR is published every day for 4 different tenors (1M, 3M, 6M, 1Y), and each rate means how much annual interest ...
108 views

### Reproducing levels when PCA has been done on changes

I want to use PCA for rich/cheap analysis of interest rates. For this I did the PCA on the time series of daily difference in interest rates, which is stationary. I cant do pca on levels, as they are ...
1k views

### Why using the swap curve as riskfree rate and no longer gov bonds?

I recently had an interview where I was asked what to use as risk-free rate. In all my textbooks it was always the US treasury yield curve. But they said no its now the "swap curve". Why is the swap ...
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### How do I interpret yield curve data points given by the US Treasury?

Given the Daily US Treasury Yield Curve Rates for a specific date I will fit the curve with the cubic spline method, but first I need to know how to use the data points given by the Treasury. For ...
2k views

### The effect of negative interest rates on derivative pricing

I am trying to get an overview of the impact on negative interest rates on financial products (in general). For the time being I distinguished the following products Vanilla options Exotic options ...
190 views

### Cash flow diagram, interest rate inflow series

I have a econ midterm coming up soon and stumbled upon this question. My approach is: 2C=800/(1.12^2)+1200/(1.12^6)=125.71 or C=1245.71/2=622.85 But I have a gut feeling this is wrong. I believe the ...
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### Calculation of bond spot rates [closed]

the cash prices of six months and one year treasury bills are \$120 and \$115 respectively. A 1.5 years bond that will pay coupons of \$5 every six months currently sells for \$121. A 2 years bond ...
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### Why future (forward) volatility smile is important to path dependent option?

I was wondering why future volatility smile is important to path dependent option and American type option such as Bermudan swaption. It would be best if someone could provide a reference article as ...
871 views

### Replicating portfolio and risk-neutral pricing for interest rate options

For equity options, the pricing of options depends on the existence of a replicating portfolio, so you can price the option as the constituents of that replicating portfolio. However, I am not seeing ...
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### Calibration of Heston version of CIR

I'd like to calibrate a variant of Heston model for interest rates which is describe by this couple of SDE \begin{aligned}dr_t&=a(b-r_t)+\sqrt{r_t}\sigma_t dW_t^1 \\ d\sigma_t&=k(\theta-\...
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### Determining swaption prices using the characteristic function

There exist multiple techniques to determine call option prices that make use of the characteristic function. These techniques boil down to some integral expression of the option price in terms of the ...
942 views

### What is the difference between a benchmark yield curve, funding curve and a basis spread curve?

I am trying to understand why these curves are important, and what they are used for in the industry today (if not at all).
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### Does Nelson-Siegel require adjustments to yield curve input data?

I am attempting to gain a better understanding of the limitations of the Nelson-Siegel model as described in Estimating the Yield Curve Using the Nelson-Siegel Model. As I have been playing around ...
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### What is the use of computing the par yield?

I have learnt how to compute par yields in class, but I am not certain when knowing this would be of use and by Professor himself said it's a somewhat useless concept. What is the use of computing the ...
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### How to implement an Interest rate neutral strategy using options?

Intuitively one would think that investing equal amounts in an ETF such as TLT and an short ETF such as TBF (with some factor for the interest rate payout of the long fund) should result in a interest ...
55 views

### Incorrect characterization of spot rate?

Is the t in the red boxed $R(t,T)$ supposed to be the same as the S in the green boxed $R(S,T)$?
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### Bootstrapping zero-rates from AUD swap rates

I have a pay fixed / receive floating interest-rate-swap on the AUD BBSY that I'd like to price for the purposes of accounting. I understand the general process to be as follows (assuming single-...
966 views

### What is the difference between BBSW and AUD LIBOR?

I understand that BBSW is the reference rate for financial instruments while AUD LIBOR is the interbank rate benchmark. However, since AUD LIBOR has been discontinued due to the rigging scandal, can ...
233 views

### Why Markov Functional Models (Hunt 2000) are not yet so popular?

I refer to MFM introduced by Hunt [2000]. These models can be seen a subset of interest rate market models. MFM allow us to describe the term structure elements using a set a functions of a low-...
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### Why the growth of the American Economy is going to cause the Fed to raise interest rates?

Due the growth of the American economy the Fed have published that interest rates are likely to increase. Why is that the response of the Fed?
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### How can an inverted yield curve in a liquid market exist?

Take a liquid market like US T-bills, notes and bonds... Who would want a long-term security that yielded less than the short? Even if someone is a long-term lender, why wouldn't they hold the ...
139 views

### For the Dothan model $E^Q[B(t)]=\infty$?

How can I show that for the Dothan short rate model We have $E^Q[B(t)]=\infty$ ? Where Dothan short rate model is " $dr_t=ar_tdt+\sigma r_tdW_t$ ". I appreciate any help. Thanks.
1k views

### Key rate duration - Bond trading at par

I am reading the CFA L2 curriculum Bond Analysis section and it mentions that for a bond trading at par, the maturity-matched rate is the only rate that affects the bond's value and therefore the key ...
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### Total return index for interest rates (EURIBOR 3M)

I would like to calculate a daily total return index for the EURIBOR 3M. • Should I freeze at the beginning of each qurter die rate? (With this methology the developing of the index depends on the ...
221 views

### LMM. Calibration to swaptions by Brigo and Morini. Volatility of swaption that matures at T=0

I'm reading Brigo D., Mercurio F. Interest Rate Models - Theory and Practice (Springer, 2006)(ISBN 3540221492) and also a source article on LMM cascade calibration to swaptions by Brigo and Morini. I ...
202 views

### How does Reuters quote caps?

I'm wondering which curves should I use when passing from the Implied volatility to prices. When I read an implied volatility (for instance 3Y Cap strike 0.5%) the discounts and forward rate ...
107 views

### Hot do I calculate an effective forward rate? [closed]

I have to find nominal and effective forward interest rate for 3M-9M term, knowing that current interest rates are: 3M - 2.05% 6M - 2.04% 9M - 2.03% 12M - 2.02% For a nominal interest rate I just ...
190 views

### Eurdollar Futures

Trying to understand the Eurdollar market a little better. I understand it's the market for dollar denominated deposits outside the US (not just in Europe). They are unregulated and not subject to ...
2k views

### Why are interest rates and stock prices positively correlated?

If I've been looking at graphs correctly, there is a strong positive correlation between stock prices (or P/B values) and interest rates over time, i.e. P/B values tend to be high when interest rates ...
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### Pricing inflation lags

I've been looking into a short piece of maths I found on pricing inflation with payment delays, and was hoping someone could confirm whether my understanding was correct or if the maths isn't quite ...
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### Why interest rate future does not support fed policy on reducing assets buying?

Using the 3-mon eurodollar interest rate futures, I construct a yield curve each year for 2015-2021 using sampling date from the end of the month. If you graphed this out, you would see that the ...
169 views

### Incompatibility of Lognormal Forward Model (LMM\BGM) and Lognormal Swap Model

In his paper On the distributional distance between the Libor and the Swap market models (and also in his book about IR modeling) D.Brigo says: 10, 11, 12 are defined in the end of message. Do I ...
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### Inflation/Rates Correlation

I've been looking into a short piece of maths a colleague has written on pricing inflation with payment delays, and was hoping someone could confirm whether my understanding is correct, or if my ...
156 views

### Negative Eonia rates

I'm curious how the current negative Eonia (Euro OverNight Index Average) rates would impact derivatives pricing. Does it mean that if I post cash collateral to you, I also need to pay you interest? ...
265 views

### Interpolating probabilities of default

I have a table of cumulative probabilities of default of industrial bonds, in time and credit rating. It is similar to S&P whitepaper here. Basically, it looks like this (sample numbers): ...
1k views

### Why is “full” Yield Curve (term structure of interest rates) 3 component based?

I am trying to understand bond-valuation and construction of yield curve. I don't have any exposure to bootstrapping or what-so-ever as of now. So it's appreciated to have an example but not too ...
833 views

### Risk-Free Rate determinant in CAPM

I have trouble understanding what type of maturity to use when calculating CAPM. My professor uses the 3-Month risk-free rate to ...
484 views

### Hedging future USD cost using different IR and forwards

I am facing a problem where I suppose an expense in 6 months from now of 2,500USD. My home currency shall be EUR, and I am trying to hedge given the following information. ...
114 views

### Different interim balances when calculating annual compound interest different ways

Something interesting that doesn't quite make sense to me. When calculating compound interest using P(1+r)^t, I'm calculating in two ways - one using the day 1 principal balance, and the other using ...
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### When Fed stops QE, Treasury Futures will go down in price, so… LEAP Puts are a good idea?

I think: when Fed stops QE (Quantitative Easing), Treasury Futures prices will go down. Question 1: Am I right? So... buying LEAP Puts (in Treasury Futures) would be a good idea. Question 2: Am I ...
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### How to develop your own interest rate model?

How can you develop your own interest rate model? What must be take cautiously before making one? Also what is the regulation that one mustfollow? Also what is some common properties that models ...