# Tagged Questions

A mean reverting process is a process that, over time, tends to drift toward its long-term mean.

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### What is the effect of mean-reversion on an upper barrier knock-out call option?

Consider a mean-reverting normal model for an underlying $dX^{(1)}_t=-\kappa X^{(1)}_tdt+\sigma^{(1)} dW^{(1)}_t$, for fixed time-independent constants, $\kappa$ (mean-reversion) and $\sigma^{(1)}$ (...
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### Variance Ratio on Currency Pair, Validation

Can somebody tell me if my variance ratio (unit root test) test is correct? I don't want to rely on my results until I can find somebody that also has a variance ratio algo that confirms them? Here is ...
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### What is the probability that a OU process hits an upper barrier U before a lower barrier L?

What is the probability that the arithmetic OU process $dx_t= \theta(\mu-x_t)dt+\sigma dW_t$ hits barrier $U$ before hitting barrier $L$ when $L<x_0<U$ ?
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### Mean Crossing for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck

Suppose we have classic Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. How can we calculate expected number (and variance too) of crossing mean value over the certain period of time? Say, if we have discrete OU process ...
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### How to estimate parameters for 2 correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes with maximum likelihood?

I would like to use maximum likelihood to estimate the parameters of two correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes from empirical data. Do you have any good references for this? If you have any hints as ...
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### Modeling the Stock Market [closed]

Hi I was wondering what is the model that best describes the price movement of the stock market? A Brownian motion Process with drift? An Ornstein Uhlenbeck_process? (where the long term mean ...
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### Consequence of negative mean reversion of hull white one factor model

I tried to calibrate the data for hull-white one-factor model. Sometimes, I get negative estimate of mean reversion factor after the calibration process. When I plug the negative mean reversion factor ...
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### cointegration strategy

If it can be proved that two time series $$S_t^1=\alpha + \beta S_t^2 + \xi_t$$ representing stocks are correlated, with $\beta=-2$ and then are proved to be cointegrated, how a portfolio should be ...
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### How to transform Ornstein-Uhlenbeck parameters from hourly to daily?

I get the parameters (long-term mean, volatility, mean-reversion speed, correlation) of two correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes via a likelihood estimation from hourly data. If I want to transform ...
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### How to reduce variance of mean reversion estimator with maximum likelihood?

I estimate the parameters of an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with Maximum Likelihood. The mean reversion speed estimator is well known to be biased. There are methods to reduce the value of the expected ...
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### How to trade the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process?

My question comes from this paper, which is a short version of Avellaneda's paper The picture bellow provides a summary of the equations. Do I understand correctly that in order to trade OU process ...
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### How to fit model implied forward curve with market forward curve for Ornstein-Uhlebeck?

I have a spread option model of 2 correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck commodity prices that I estimate the parameters of with Maximum Likelihood. What is the formula for introducing the additional ...
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### What is the covariance of two correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes?

What is the covariance of two correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes? I was trying correlation(1,2)*Var1^(1/2)*Var2^(1/2), but I am not sure! I took Var1=(sigma1^2/(2*speedofmeanreversion1))*(1-exp(-...
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Trying to evaluate model for pairs trading. Consider classic formula: $\frac{dP}{P} = adt+b\frac{dQ}{Q}+dX$, where $P$ and $Q$ are stock prices, and $X$ is a mean reverting process (MRP) and $a$ is ...
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### Calculating half life of mean reverting series with python

I am currently attempting to calculate the halflife of a mean reverting series using python programming language and the theory of the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. I have a series which when plotted ...
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### Why is the mean time-dependent in the Hull-White interest rate model?

In the Vasicek interest-rate model, the interest rate reverts to a constant mean. This makes sense to me. In my conception, the mean ought to be time-invariant, since interest rates don't follow an ...
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### How to optimize an arbitrage portfolio when taking into account different speeds of mean reversion?

In portfolio optimization, it is insufficient to just note the size of price deviation - that only tells the amount of profit if held to maturity. One also needs to take into account reversion speed - ...
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Is there a major article or even better a comprehensive recent review article showing quantitative evidence for the existence of the business cycle and measuring the trending and mean reversion on ...
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### Are there alternatives to the Box-Tiao decomposition in identifying mean reverting portfolios?

As documented in this paper, Box-Tiao decomposition (a way to decompose multiple time series into components with different speeds of mean reversion) can be used to identify mean reverting portfolios. ...
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### Is trading mean reversion of small principal components of prices profitable?

Many have told me that it is a good idea to look at the third principal component (PC) of yield curve movements, as well as third and fourth PC of G10 currencies. They claim these PCs represent "...
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### Mean reversion in seasonal ARIMA model

Hi I'm looking for some help deriving the half life from an ARIMA model. My current best model candidate is (1,1,0)x(1,0,0)[4] and I'm a little confused on this. I've read up on HL for AR(1) models ...
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### Extracting mean reversion and incorporating into formula for general series

I'm looking to derive a general formula for margin reversion like Hussman has done in this article for some projections I'm doing. http://www.hussmanfunds.com/wmc/wmc100802.htm I'm not interested in ...
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### Tests for Mean Reversion in a Portfolio Rebalancing

On a single time series one can run a Dickey-Fuller test to determine if the asset is mean reverting or at least has been mean reverting during your sample. Is there a way to test for mean-reversion ...
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### Does it make sense to interpret autocorrelation and box test on 5 data points?

I am trying to see if after I trade a stock the price movements at 2, 5, 7, 10, 30 and 60 seconds after exhibit any autocorrelation. Below I have the returns from my trade price to the trade 2,5,7,10 ...
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### Threshold calculation for buying a mean-reverting asset

I am trying to figure-out an optimal policy for buying a unit when its price follows a mean-reverting price process (Ornstein–Uhlenbeck), when I have a finite time deadline for buying the unit. I ...
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I have constructed a mean reverting spread using two indexes. I know they have to be mean reverting, but when plotted side by side they are mean reverting for a little bit and then deviate and head ...
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### Statistical significance of a pair trading strategy

How can I test the significance of a pair trading strategy, i.e. that the H0 is "The strategy has no predicting power". I was considering to use the technique in Evidence Based Technical Analysis ...
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### R code for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process

Can any one help me with some R code to run Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process?
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### Does mean reverting imply mean stationary?

If I have a time series that exhibits mean reverting properties, does it necessarily mean that the time series is mean stationary?
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### How are momentum and reversion long/short strategies dynamically combined in trading?

I'm trying to understand how to combine two strategies dynamically in trading: one mean-reversion and the other momentum. One way (also the simplest one) of doing this is by scaling/normalizing ...
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### Two prices pass the cointegration test but there is a trend. How to check stationarity?

Below is a spread built with two ETFs that pass the cointegration test i.e. Adjusted Dickey Fuller, adfTest(type="nc") in R's fUnitRoots with a p-value < 0.01. The red line is the trendline. What ...
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### Entry and exit points for very short mean-reverting timeseries

I have a model specifying a cointegration relationship on a number of transaction-level timeseries. I would like to specify entry and exit points for trades where these points ideally would be just ...