# Tagged Questions

Monte Carlo simulation methods are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results.

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### Is there a step-by-step guide for calculating portfolio VaR using monte carlo simulations

I am trying to determine a step-by-step algorithm for calculating a portfolio's VaR using monte carlo simulations. It seems to me that the literature for this is extraordinarily opaque for something ...
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### How to get greeks using Monte-Carlo for arbitrary option?

Let's assume I have an arbitrary option that I can price using Monte-Carlo simulation. What is the general approach (i.e. without relying on specific option type) to calculating the greeks in this ...
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### Black-Scholes under stochastic interest rates

I'm trying to implement the Black-Scholes formula to price a call option under stochastic interest rates. Following the book of McLeish (2005), the formula is given by (assuming interest rates are ...
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### Get distribution for aggregate loss using Monte Carlo

I am given two data sets containing dates and losses (in some currency). Given a distribution for the amount of losses and an (a,b,0) distribution for frequency of losses, how can I use Monte Carlo ...
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### Portfolio optimization with monte carlo sampling from predictive distribution

Let's say we have a predictive distribution of expected returns for N assets. The distribution is not normal. We can interpret the dispersion in the distribution as reflection of our uncertainty (or ...
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### Calculating VaR with Monte Carlo simulation

I would like some help here :) I have a problem calculating VaR with the Monte Carlo Simulation. I have followed then next steps, is this a right way to calculate VaR or I need something more? 1....
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### How to reduce variance in a Cox-Ingersoll-Ross Monte Carlo simulation?

I am working out a numerical integral for option pricing in which I'm simulating an interest rate process using a Cox-Ingersoll-Ross process. Each step in my Monte Carlo generated path is a ...
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### Simulation of GBM

I have a question regarding the simulation of a GBM. I have found similar questions here but nothing which takes reference to my specific problem: Given a GBM of the form \$dS(t) = \mu S(t) dt + \...
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### How to apply quasi-Monte Carlo to path-dependent options?

Following up on my recent question on variance reduction in a Cox-Ingersoll-Ross Monte Carlo simulation, I would like to learn more about using a quasi-random sequence, such as Sobol or Niederreiter, ...
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### How to compute greeks using the adjoint Monte Carlo approach?

Assume I have a stochastic ODE $$dS = a(S)dt + b(S)dW,$$ with Euler approximation $$\hat{S}_{n+1}=F_n(\hat{S}_n)=\hat{S}_n+a(\hat{S}_n)h+b(\hat{S}_n)Z_n\sqrt{h}.$$ This allows me to create sample ...
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### Stopping Monte Carlo simulation once certain convergence level is reached

I'm creating a Monte Carlo simulation model which I use to price an European option with various pay-off conditions, hence I can't use Black Scholes. I want to stop the simulation once I am 95% sure ...
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### American Swaption Pricing with Monte-Carlo method

I want to price an American swaption but I am not sure about what I am doing. Tree methods and PDE discretization seem difficult to adapt to a swaption. I am trying a Monte-Carlo approach. (in ...
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### Vanilla European options: Monte carlo vs BS formula

I have implemented a monte carlo simulation for a plain vanilla European Option and I am trying to compare it to the analytical result obtained from the BS formula. Assuming my monte carlo pricer is ...
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### Divergence issue with my monte carlo pricer…

I am trying to implement a vanilla European option pricer with Monte Carlo and compare its result to the BS analytical formula's result. I noticed that as I increase (from 1 million to 10 millions) ...
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### What is wrong in this GBM simulation?

I am trying to generate a few samples of GBM using the following very simple MATLAB code: ...