Questions about models for the valuation of option contracts.

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Is Trading in the Underlying Necessary for Replication?

In a simple one-period binomial model we have two possible payoffs: $f(S^u)$ and $f(S^d)$. To replicate this we must trade in two assets, usually the stock $S$ and the money market account (assumed ...
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109 views

Pricing call option

Question: The price of a stock is 100. With equal probabilities, it either goes up to 130 or down to 70. What is the price of a 1 year call option with exercise price 100. Risk free rate is 5%. ...
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158 views

Intuitive Reasoning for Using Risk-Neutral Measure

Although we thoroughly covered risk-neutral pricing in university I never fully understood it in the context of continuous-time processes. But first of all, lets consider a discrete time example: ...
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76 views

Pricing American with floating strike

Consider a American floating strike put option with maturity $T$, written on a non-dividend paying stock $S_t$. The strike of this option at time $t\leq T$ is $Ke^{-r (T-t )}$, where $r$ is the ...
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735 views

calculate gamma value using finite difference method

I try to use the finite difference method to get the approximately gamma value, but there is an issue I can't solve. First, I set $h$ to 1 basis point of underlying asset value, but the result is not ...
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100 views

Efficient numerical approaches for pricing American Options with multiple sources of noise

I am looking for efficient numerical approaches for pricing American options when two or more sources of noise are involved (the simplest case coming to mind would be the Heston Model) Eventhough I ...
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158 views

Effects of random-generator-choice on derivative's price

There is a plethora of pseudo-random-generators out there. Some of them are definetly better and some of them severily underperform. My standard tool is Mersenne Twister - when I need to generate ...
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419 views

Is it wrong to use 'real world' probabilities for option valuation?

Is it wrong to use 'real world' probabilities for option valuation, even when the market is not liquid enough to delta hedge the option? My instinct is that it is wrong, because the time value of ...
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126 views

Calculating deltas of call options?

From a continuous standpoint, I understand why an ATM call has delta = 0.5 and for ITM call, the delta approaches 1 since each move in the underlying corresponds to same unit of value change in call ...
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238 views

Testing Black Scholes Analytical Options Pricer

I've written some code to calculate European option prices using the Black-Scholes analytical method. Can somebody recommend a good way to test that code? I have looked at option pricers online like ...
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345 views

Good Model Calibration Books/Papers for Common Option Pricing Models

I am trying to find a good book which focuses on the model calibration. I just want to know generally, what are the most common methods of model calibration(such as Black-Scholes Model, Stochastic ...
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422 views

Calculating Theta assuming other variables remain the same

Is there any way to calculate theta at X day in future based solely on knowing 1) Total Current Option Price 2) Days Till Expiration How would this be done? Thank you
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76 views

$E[F_T] = F_0$, $p = \frac{1-d}{u-d}$ --> Which implies which?

From Ch 12 in Hull's OFOD, we compute the risk-neutral probabilities for a futures contract: Later in Ch 17, futures options are valued, and we have the same result: In relation to ...
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72 views

How to price touch options using quantlib?

I am new to quantlib and I want use it to to price a touch option (single/double). I searched on google for example code but I could not find anything. Hence, I am ...
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134 views

Linear combination of geometric Brownian motion

Let $X_t= e^{\left(\mu-\sigma^2/2 \right)t+\sigma W_t}$ be a geometric Brownian motion with drift $\mu$ and volatility $\sigma$. I am trying to find an analytical solution to $$\mathbb{E}\left[ ...
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75 views

Tradeable => Satisfies pricing equation?

In Wilmott's third volume, on p. 857, he tries giving an insight into the market price of risk by showing what it is for traded assets. For this he constructs a portfolio of two different options: ...
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100 views

Option Pricing under Jump Diffusion Models

I was wondering what the overall approach/intuition behind how to price options under Jump Diffusion Models. My understanding is under Diffusion models such as Geometric Brownian Motion (Black ...
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128 views

Delta and gamma neutral

A financial institution currently has a portfolio with delta of 450 and gamma of 6,000. A traded option is available with a delta of 0.6 and a gamma of 1.5. How could the portfolio be made both delta ...
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82 views

Determining swaption prices using the characteristic function

There exist multiple techniques to determine call option prices that make use of the characteristic function. These techniques boil down to some integral expression of the option price in terms of the ...
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49 views

Does a call calendar lose its entire value if underlying increases well past the strike?

If I buy a call calendar spread, and the underlying increases, both options are in the money by the expiry of the short call. So both options increase in value, but the short one increases less ...
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212 views

Dupire model and Local Volatility model

In the context of Option pricing model. Is there a difference between the Dupire Model and the Local volatility model ? Thanks Achal
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178 views

Implied volatility and pricing of vanilla options

As far as I understood, implied volatility (IV) is a lucky parametrization of the vanilla option's price. That is, instead of deciding how much the call worth now, you can decide on its IV and put ...
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494 views

forward implied volatility skew

I would like to calculate implied forward volatility skew. I have stochastic volatility monte carlo. What kind of payoff do I need to price and how to use Black() formula to calculate the implied ...
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140 views

Pricing Principle 1

In Tomas Björk's Arbitrage Theory in Continuous Time (or here), $\exists$ this Pricing Principle. Is the one in red supposed to be the proof of the Pricing Principle 1? Or merely an intuitive ...
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96 views

Simple pricing example confusion

This it taken from "Heard on the Street", Section B. Consider a market with $0$ risk-free rate, no transactions costs etc. The IBM stock costs \$75 and does not pay dividends. Design a security ...
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559 views

Price of a down-and-out call in terms of European call

If $EC(S_0, K, \sigma, r, T)$ represents the price of a European call option with strike $K$, expiry $T$, initial price $S_0$, volatility $\sigma$ and where the constant interest rate is $r$, then I ...
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25 views

binomial - parameters at which american option hits early exercise possibility

I am looking for a set of parameters (d,u,r,So,K, N=?) for pricing an american call using binomial where the call hits the early exercise possibility. Do you have any exemplary set?
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47 views

Martingale correction for Andersen scheme with Interest Rate

I have implemented martingale correction to my Andersen scheme for Heston model, as it is in the paper (page 19-22): ...
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168 views

Barrier option : Monte carlo simulation

I am trying to price a Down-and-Out Call using Monte Carlo simulation. The problem is that I get the right price for the vanilla option (same price as the analytic formula of Black and Scholes) but I ...
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57 views

Path Dependent Options - Which choice of model?

Can someone please help elaborate/clarify the below statements? I've heard about them from people but would like to know some more detail behind these statements.. - 1) SABR is not useful in pricing ...
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21 views

no arbitrage condition for paylater option

a paylater option has the folowing payoff: $(S_{T}-K)_{+}-P1_{S_{T}>K}$. To determine the fee P that the option holder must pay, we must write the non arbitrage condition. Why is it this: ...
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103 views

Pricing Forward Start Option with PDE

I am looking for references (books and papers) or suggestions on how to price forward starting calls using a PDE approach typically in the Heston model (In the BS world, the computation is trivial), ...
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84 views

Fourier Transform

In a notes on "Option Pricing using Fourier Transform": Price of plain vanila call is given by $$ C(t, S_t) = e^{-rT}\mathbb{E}^{\mathbb{Q}}[(S_T -K)^+|\mathcal{F}_0] = e^{-rT} \int_K^{\infty} (S_T ...
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42 views

How to Calculate Return Option with Forward Measure

I am trying to computing the price of an option at time $t$, with payoff $X = \frac{S_{T_2}}{S_{T_1}}$, at time $T_2$, where $t < T_1 < T_2$. Here how I compute it: Using the forward measure ...
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53 views

When to include dividends in option valuation

When using the Black-Scholes-Merton method for option valuation which takes into account dividends, does the dividend only get included into the calculation of options whose lifetime straddles the ...
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55 views

Call and Put Prices Equal at Forward Price - Why?

Consider a European call and put with values $C_t$ and $P_t$, respectively, under the Black-Scholes model. By put-call parity, $$ C_t - P_t = S_t - Ke^{-r(T-t)} $$ for expiration time $T$. Note if ...
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45 views

Applying interest rate models for volaility rate

To what extent may the interest rate models be applied for modeling implied volatity? The story: I was checking different stochastic option pricing models for being able to replicate implied ...
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45 views

How do I incorporate dividends into options pricing

-Hey all, recently I encountered the necessity to incorporate dividends into options pricing. Lets say I have the following american put option: Initial price - 100, T-0.25, Volatility is 30%, Number ...
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77 views

What is more likely effect to call and put prices, respectively, if the stock price decreases by$1?

The current stock price is \$80.Call ,and ,put, options, with ,exercise ,prices, of $50 and 3 days to maturity are currently trading. What is more likely effect to call and put prices, respectively, ...
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161 views

Feynman Kac Formula for path-dependent options

Consier geometric Brownian motion: $dS_t/S_t=\mu dt+\sigma dW_t$ Feynman Kac theorem tells us that the conditional expectation $v(t,x)=E[ e^{-rT}\Psi(S_T) | S_t=x]$ can be computed by solving the ...
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213 views

Vega hedging with implied volatility smile

I have a problem with vega hedging. Consider the management of an exotic derivative, such as Barrier option. Typically we do the following tasks: selecting a pricing model, say, a local volatility ...
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100 views

When valuing a vanilla option on an index, should we take dividend into account?

When valuing a vanilla option on an index (eg FTSE 100), should we take index dividend yield into account? $$ c=Se^{-q\tau}N\left(d_1\right)-Ke^{-r\tau}N\left(d_2\right) $$ $$ ...
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89 views

Delta hedging cost of exotic options?

I'm simulating dynamic delta hedging for up-and-out call option. For plain vanilla call options, I heard that the option price is the expected value of the accumulated delta hedging cost. Does it also ...
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64 views

Connection between implied volatily and implied probability

I am reading some lecture notes about Black-Scholes (BS) option pricing. Since the BS-formula is not supported by observed data because of the dependence of the implied volatility on the strik and ...
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80 views

Pricing employee stock options

ESOs are typically priced using the black-scholes model, but with an additional parameter for for the employee turnover rates . An example ...
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103 views

Why we consider second derivative w.rt price but only first derivative w.r.t time and volatility

What is the reason (better if it is intuitive, and not too math heavy), that when we talk of Greeks, we consider second derivative with respect to price (gamma), but only first derivative with respect ...
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201 views

Put-Call relationship for Option on Forward

The forward price of a forward contract maturing at time T on an asset with price St at time t is, $$ F=S_te^{(r-q)(T-t)} $$ where $r$ is the risk free rate and $q$ is the continuous dividend rate ...
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72 views

Hedging behind the decomposition of american put options

Now I'm reading a paper:"alternative characterizations of american put options" , the authors are Carr,Jarrow,Myneni http://www.math.nyu.edu/research/carrp/papers/pdf/amerput7.pdf After theorem 1 ...
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binomial option pricing model - problem with risk-neutral probability

I have a little problem: in the binomial option pricing model, the price of a european derivative security $V_{n}$ satisfies: $V_{n}=[1/(1+r)]*[\tilde{p}*optionUp +\tilde{q}*optionDown]$ where: ...
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139 views

Pricing of Binary or Digital Options or more generally options with discontinuous payoffs using PDEs

I am trying to find references (books, papers, etc.) for calculating $\mathbb E f(X_T)$, where $X_T$ is a diffusion and $f$ is a real function that is not continuous, by means of solving a PDE or ...