# Tagged Questions

A contract that gives the owner the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell a security at a fixed price in the future.

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### Is implied volatility flawed?

Was going through how Implied Volatility is used by option traders and in delta hedging. Correct me if I am wrong, doesn't IV consider a standard deviation of the stock price over say the past 1 year? ...
148 views

### What is the use of options pricing formulas

This may seem like a dumb question, but if the EMH is generally true, wouldn't options already be correctly priced? Why do we need all these intricate formulas, unless we think the prices are wrong or ...
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### US options market/microstruture research

Can someone point out where to find up to date market/microstruture research in the options market?
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### Symbols for options on gold futures

I have a historical data set containing only options on gold futures. If I print out a unique list of option symbols I get: ...
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### Calculate minimum IV increase to offset theta

How would one calculate the minimum implied volatility increase necessary to offset theta decay? IV is typically a percentage, while theta is a dollar value. In theory I think I could look at what ...
179 views

### Pricing a call when minimum stock price above strike with certainty

I am editing this question because it was originally unclear, and I didn't get the answers I was hoping for. In my finance book I have the following question T-bills currently yield 5.5 percent. ...
234 views

### Covariance structure of call option surface

Assume the observed call option prices $C(K_i,T_i)$ for $i = 1,\dots,N$ are disturbed by some unknown measurement noise $\epsilon$. What would an appropriate covariance structure be for $\epsilon$? ...
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### Hedge volatility decreases

My particular options positions are typically a long delta, and long vega. Decreases in implied volatility, or specifically the VIX, can drastically alter the profitability of my position. Is there a ...
217 views

### asian option – exotic option – real data, authentic examples?

I would be pleased if any of You can give me the real example of an asian option (or other exotic option) that is being traded or that is offered by some institution. I have been searching the whole ...
151 views

### Risk Neutrality Necessary for Dual Delta Calculation?

I have an option chain for a specific expiry date. Then calculate dP/dK numerically for each pair of strikes. My hunch is that this calculation is not risk neutral in the strictest sense of the word ...
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### Impact of Implied skew variations on future prices

I want to test the relationship between of the oil implied volatility skew and oil future prices. I'm lost regarding the method to test the relationship. I was thinking about a regression but I'm ...
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### I have some historical options data, and there are duplicates of some options, how to filter them

I have some historical EOD options data for 2013, and there are duplicates listed for same strikes/expirations. I was told that by the provider that this is due to "special one-time cash payout" for ...
147 views

### Asymptotic behavior of theta of vanilla call option

It is well known that the theta of call option is always negative. Also, the theta of (at the money call option) goes to infinity as the time approaches to the maturity. On the other hands, (ITM and ...
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### How market making in Index options is done?

I have been thinking about this one for last couple of days. With options on share we hedge on cash and the underlying equity as per Black-Scholes formulation. But I am confused on Index options. ...
210 views

### How to calculate the probability of 2 options ending in money with different expiration dates?

Lets say I make a trade that consists of buying one put and 2 calls of the same underlying but with different expiration dates and different strikes. Example trade: ...
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### Exercise on American call option and dividends

Consider an americal Call option on an underlying paying dividends. Then it is often argued that it is only optimal to exercise right before the dividend is paid out, otherwise one will not exercise. ...
735 views

### Which risk free rate is assumed by market when pricing american options?

I'm just started with finance, so maybe my question is dumb or answered elsewhere. Please guide me to relevant materials. According to put-call parity more time to expiration means more difference ...