# Tagged Questions

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### Are these steps correct to calculate Value-at-Risk with a Monte Carlo simulation?

I have a problem calculating VaR with the Monte Carlo Simulation. I followed the next steps and would like know if it is a right way to calculate VaR or if I need something more? The steps ...
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### Is there a way to meaningfully generate daily returns from monthly?

I have a set of 7 investments in a portfolio and I need to optimize the weightings based on some exposures to various markets/styles/economic factors. I was hoping to do some sort of simple exposure ...
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### Completeness and Hedging Question

A question in some private notes I'm struggling to work through (exam. prep.). (iii) is where I hit a wall with my understanding & I'm lost thereafter. Any help/clarification gratefully received. ...
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### What is the intuition of a spread portfolio and how exactly is it constructed?

In a lot of papers spread portfolios are constructed, like in Harvey and Siddique (1999), Table IV, or in Fama and French (2005 from SSRN), page 15. First, why is it important to construct such ...
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### What does each bar in the empirical average eigenvalues spectrum of the correlation matrix of log-returns of stocks represent?

An example diagram, taken from this paper, looks like follows: What is its physical interpretation? The highest eigenvalue, the paper says, represents market mode. So, what does the difference in ...
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### Derivation of the tangency / maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio in Markowitz Portfolio Theory? (2 risky assets)

I’m looking for a nice & detailed explanation for how to derive the formula for the weight of asset 1 in the tangency / maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio in Markowitz portfolio theory in a world with ...
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### In a FX options book, is the sum of P&L equal to the portfolio value?

For a portfolio containing FX options, would the sum of P&L for each option be the portfolio value?
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### Shrinkage Estimator for Newey-West Covariance Matrix

I like to apply the Newey-West covariance estimator for portfolio optmization which is given by $$\Sigma = \Sigma(0) + \frac12 \left (\Sigma(1) + \Sigma(1)^T \right),$$ where $\Sigma(i)$ is the lag ...
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### Liquidity Adjusted Asset Pricing Model

I have a data set with 4000 companies and I have calculated a liquidity measure of each of the company in the dataset as Where, Turnover is the monthly average ratio of daily volume to shares ...
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### Behaviour of out of sample efficient frontier

I am comparing the efficient frontier of a set of portfolios that are in and out of sample. The first period is from 1991-01-03 until 1992-10-03 and the second one from 1992-10-03 until 1994-03-03. I ...
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### How to calculate the estimation error of portfolio variance using propagation results?

I am trying to find a conservative approximation for the propagated estimation error of a investment portfolio's variance (comprising two assets), given we know the estimation error for the variance ...
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### Ledoit-Wolf portfolio weights calculation

I am trying to implement the Ledoit-Wolf minimum variance portfolio strategy on a real-world stock dataset. ...
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### Budget Constraint in Duffie's book

On Page 5 of Duffie's Dynamic Asset Pricing Theory, the budget-feasible set is defined as: $$X(q,e) = {e+D^T\theta \in R_+^s:\theta \in R^N, q\theta \leq 0}$$ Compared to Kerry Back's presentation of ...
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### Portfolio optimised for diversification and regular yield. How to hedge?

Here is a portfolio optimisation for equity dividend and yield designed to diversify holdings and produce regular monthly returns using only ETFs complete with R code. http://prescientmuse.blogspot....
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### Sharpe Ratio for loans

I am trying to calculate the sharpe ratio for a set of loans. These loans have already matured and I know if they were good or not: grades are the different grades of the loans. interest rate is the ...
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### What happened to Mountain View Analytics?

I stumbled over Thomas Cover's work on algorithmic portfolio selection; apparently, an outfit called "Mountain View Analytics" attempted to implement the suggestions from Cover's research. ...
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### Portfolio insurance with a coherent risk measure (CVaR)

I would like to analysis of portfolio insurance under a coherent risk-measure method (CVaR), How can I achieve that? Is there a way to turn the problem into a linear programming problem? or to ...
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### How to correctly construct a value- and equally weighted portfolio consisting of property-types?

A problem of which I couldn’t find the answer on the forum is about the construction of equally-weighted and value-weighted portfolio. I want to compute the equally-weighted property-type portfolio ...
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### Calculating stock weight for SEC13F filers

I am trying to evaluate weight of stocks in portfolio for an investor. For this purpose I use SEC13F filings for particular quarters and historical prices from Yahoo. There are stocks in portfolio ...
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### Calculating weekly portfolio returns for portfolios sorted by volatility

I am having some issues with finding the right code in STATA for sorting the data into portfolios by historical volatility (standard deviation) of returns and then calculating portfolio returns and ...
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### How to understand stock return comovement

In his book "Asset Pricing" chapter 20, Cochrane said For example, suppose that average returns were higher for stocks whose ticker symbols start later in the alphabet. (Maybe investors search ...
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### bandwith portfolio rebalancing in python

I want to calculate a bandwith rebalancing machanism for a portfolio of two assets. As soon as the performance of one ov the assets gets bigger or smaller than the other one + a defined tolerance ...
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### Investing in all assets with positive expected return and allowing for positive correlation

How does the answer to this question Risk minimization by investing in all assets with positive expected return change if assets can be positively correlated (but not perfectly) and short sales are ...
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### building a correlation of equity portfolio to custom benchmark 60/40

Hi i have built a custom portfolio of equities with weights but would like to plot the daily, monthly and annual correlation to 60/40 benchmark. Please see code below and suggest how I can do the ...
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### Solving inequality constraint

I am trying to solve the following inequality constraint: Given time-series data for N stocks, I am trying to construct a portfolio weight vector to minimize the variance of the returns. the ...
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### Find all possible permutations of asset weights in a given portfolio?

I need to find all possible asset weight combinations for an 8 asset portfolio. Each weight is a multiple of 10 (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1) Some assets can be weighted with ...
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### Constrained portfolio optimization - orthogonalize factor exposure

I am optimizing a stock portfolio with a few factors. If I constraint exposure to one of the factors to be a constant and set the exposure to other factors as zero. It is ok to use a diagonal factor ...