# Tagged Questions

Techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables, when the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.

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### Rebucketing Risk using PCA/other methods

was working on a project and could use some help. New to the community and looking fwd to being an active part of it. My question is, let's say we have a vector of securities V, and it trades with ...
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### Is there a considered floor for variation the 1st principal component must explain?

I am wondering if there is a considered floor to the percentage variation the 1st principal component must explain in general for PCA - ie. any lower and it is not worth doing PCA at all? Is the floor ...
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### Orthogonal Regression/PCA

I am doing orthogonal regression. My X matrix consists of returns on a broad market index, value index, growth index, a few sectors,.....(my Y is the returns on an equity fund) I am regressing the Y ...
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### Calculating rate of renewal for Certificate of Deposit

I am trying to calculate the rate of renewal for a large stock of Certificates of Deposit. These contracts are given on a fixed amount of time and some of them get renewed every time they reach ...
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### Regression model syntax

I'm following the methodology outlined in Developing High-Frequency Equities Trading Models. On page 27, the author outlines an OLS regression model to obtain beta coefficients. The model is defined ...
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### Using cross-sectional factor model (BARRA type) returns in a time series factor model (Fama-French type)?

This may be seen as a follow up question for the previous discussion on time-series vs cross-sectional factor models: Which approach to estimating fundamental factor models is better, cross-sectional ...
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### Regression model when samples are small and not correlated

I received this question during an onsite interview for a quant job and I'm still scratching my head on how to solve this problem. Any help would be appreciated. Mr Quant thinks that there is a ...
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### Test for NonLinearity

I am doing a regression, returns of stocks(cross section of stock returns at a given time) against some fundamental factors. And look at the residuals to get a normalized view when trying to rank the ...
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### Choosing an optimal dependent variable, regression/model fitting

When I select a certain target variable and model that with either linear regression or some other technique, say naive bayes, I hope to finally arrive at a model which has statistical significance, ...
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### How to deal with missing returns when creating value (equal) weighted returns

recently I am doing cross sectional regressions, and getting confused about missing returns. Suppose we have 100 stocks, then we want to construct a value weighted return (or equal weighted return). ...
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### Moving window forecasting in Python

I am looking to create some code that will out-of-sample forecast the HAR-RV model. The model itself is formulated as the following, and the betas are estimated through HAC-OLS or Newey-West. ...
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I am writing my Thesis about hedge funds performance measurement and I want to use the seven factor model proposed by Fung & Hsieh (2004). Now, I am struggling to find out how to calculate the ...
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### Confused on interpretation of betas/alphas in regression in finance

I ran a regression on two stocks. I don't have the data in front of me, but it is a more conceptual question. Let's say SP500 returned a total 23% return over this time period and MSFT returned ...
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### Transforming Variables in Regression

I have a very simple problem that hopefully someone could help me with or at least point me in the right direction. I am testing to see which factors affect index returns the most and would like to ...
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### How to interpret the French-Fama SMB factor?

I regressed ten portfolios on the Fama French factors and get significant loadings on the SMB factor. However, if I look at the actual average market cap of these portfolios, the portfolios with the ...
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### Please give a step-by-step explanation on how to build a factor model

Factor models such as Fama-French or the other ones that are partially summarized here work on the cross-section of asset returns. How are the factors built, how are sensitivities/coefficients ...
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### Linear Model setup for Second-pass Regression

I'm confused on modeling the second pass regression given the beta's from the first pass. First-pass regression : $r_{it} - r_{ft} = a_{i}+b_{i}(r_{Mt}-r_{ft})+e_{it}$ For estimating this model (9 ...
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### Technical Indicators reference

I have been looking for a good reference where I can find how technical indicators of stock market analysis are calculated. I have a dataset (time series) which I want to extract these indicators to ...
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### Finding optimal ewma and number of periods usedas features in a time series regression

I am using an exponential moving average (ema) to smooth the return of a price time series. I then want to use the last n periods (features) as the independent variables of the time series to predict ...
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### Actually benefiting from logistic regression to estimate probability of default

Does anyone know any events where using logistic regression to estimate probability of default has led to a bank, financial institution, government or anything really to benefit in practice? I see a ...
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### Is Least Median Squares (LMS) regression commonly used in Finance?

Least Median Squares is often argued to give more stable results than does OLS. Whereas in OLS one minimises the mean of squared residuals, in LMS, one instead minimises the median of squared ...
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### Should I use a correlation coefficient formula or a multiple regression formula?

I have an assignment dealing with the stock market and I'm a little lost. My instructions are to come up a method to create a score for a stock then compare the score against what the stock actually ...
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### Using Financial Ratios to get credit rating or PD

Hello I'm looking for papers, aside from ones that use CDS spreads, about credit rating development or estimating default probability based on financial ratios that also include methodology and maybe ...
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### Ran multivariate linear regression, checked normal probability plot, residuals are not normal. What can I do?

One of the required assumptions for multiple linear regression is that residuals are normally distributed, correct? After running my regression, my normal probability plot is showing the typical ...
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### Filtering out AR(1) effects before using stochastic volatility model

I wonder if I first filter out AR(1) (autoregressive model with lag 1) effects from univariate time series and then fit stochastic volatility model does above procedure introduce any bias at first or ...
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### Stationarity tests in the frequency domain for regression

Strict stationarity is the strongest form of stationarity. It means that the joint statistical distribution of any collection of the time series variates never depends on time. So, the mean, variance ...
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### Minimum Variance Hedge Ratio in Binomial Framework

In order to find the minimum variance hedge ratio when holding a portfolio of vanilla call options and hedging with stock, you can do an OLS regression. In a binomial model framework, given ...
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### What's the meaning of the intercept in asset pricing model?

I would like to understand the role of alpha (intercept) in the regression-based asset pricing model or $n$-factor models; one of the most famous of those one is the Fama-French 3-factor model. ...
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### Lagged dependent variable, yes or no?

I read conflicting opinions about the inclusion of lagged dependent variables in modeling, and I guess it is partly up to the researcher and depending on the scope and goal of the research. I'm ...
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### How To Regress Returns Vs Price as Pct of 52 week high?

I would like to do a linear regression of daily stock price returns, vs the price as a percentage of the 52 week high. i.e. [next week return] = A * [Price / 52 Week High ] + B where A and B are ...
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### Potential pitfalls in the use of correlation

Background: The red line is an index, which goes from 0 to 100, measuring uncertainty in the markets. The dark blue line is a price index, which has a lower bound at 0, and virtually no upper bound. ...
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### Dividend Index Futures

My question is dealing with the proportionality between Dividend Index Futures prices and Index prices. Indeed, we in the past we used to do a simple regression between these variables and use the ...
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### How to properly take averages to reduce data in regression/panel data analysis

I'm trying to do a regression on my panel data. Say I have T=3500 days of data and N=125 firms. Since Matlab get's major memory issues (which I try to prevent by the usual solutions as seen on the ...
### From $AR(p)$ to SDE
Let the Vasicek model to be $$\Delta r_{t}=k(\theta - r_{t-1})\Delta t+\sigma\Delta z_{t}$$ Due to the fact that $$\Delta r_{t}=r_{t}-r_{t-1}$$ if you let $\Delta t=1$, it is easy to see by ...