I am trying to calculate the log returns of a dataset in R using the usual log differencing method. However, the calculated data is simply a vector of zeroes. I can't see what I'm doing wrong. Here ...
I feel like I'm missing something fundamental here, but I can't shake the feeling that these two series should be equivalent. /edit: there is also dailyReturn(Cl(SPY)). I've seen all 3 of these ...