The asset rate of returns is the profit on a particular investment; it includes any change in the asset value, interest, commission or dividends and so, all other cash-flows which an investors receive or pays due to the investment.

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109 views

Market returns below risk free rate

Let's say I'm using CAPM to estimate the cost of equity, so I need expected market returns for the calculations. The standard approach is simply to compute arithmetic mean of an index (or rather its ...
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1answer
37 views

Calculating Portfolio Returns Across Sectors

I have a table of asset (mutual fund) returns and the percentage that each asset is in a particular stock sector: ...
0
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0answers
36 views

Intraday or overnight returns?

While calculating insider abnormal returns, closing prices of securities are generally used. We take the actual ex post return of the security i on time t, minus the expected normal return for the ...
2
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1answer
58 views

How does RAROC identify capital requirements?

I've read that RAROC is used to set economic capital requirements for different products, projects, business lines etc. Is it just a matter of solving for the required economic capital level to ...
2
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1answer
57 views

Comparing a money-weighted return of my own portfolio with a benchmark ETF/other portfolio that is subject to the same cashflows

I am able to calculate the money-weighted return (XIRR equivalent in Excel) of my portfolio. Whilst I can compare this with ‘headline’ returns of ETF’s, Mutual Funds etc, I want to isolate the timing ...
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2answers
50 views

Estimation of annualized volatility depending on data frequency - exceptions to the general rule?

From my understanding, the annualized standard deviation of daily returns is generally higher than of annualized standard deviation of weekly returns is generally higher than.... ...
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2answers
69 views

Volatility of EUR/USD: is this correct?

Let x be the closeBid price of EUR/USD, sampled every 5 minutes during year 2015 (historical data). This is the variation (is it ...
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1answer
34 views

Drivers of equity returns: dividend yield, change in P/E and dividend (or earnings) growth

In an NBIM paper I read the following: "... one can break down the total equity return into the dividend yield (the starting valuation), the change in the P/E ratio (the change in valuation) ...
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1answer
22 views

How to calculate 5 years return & STD for ETF?

I want to calculate by-myself 5 year return & STD for SPY ETF. What I did: Downloaded to Excel from yahoo finance historical data for the ETF (daily Adj. Close) from ...
3
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3answers
193 views

Computing Pooled IRR from the IRRs of parts

Suppose I have two cash flows: CF1: -10001001001100 CF2: -20020301 I can compute now: IRR(CF1) = 10% IRR(CF2) =-55% IRR(CF1+CF2) = 4.46% Is there a way to compute (or at least get a fair ...
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1answer
40 views

Portfolio return for assets held for different lengths of time

How does one calculate the return on a portfolio if the assets in that portfolio were held for varying periods of time? For Example: $t_0$ Buy AAPL at 100 $t_5$ Buy MSFT at 20 $t_1$$_0$ Sell MSFT at ...
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0answers
84 views

Determining the investment strategy

I have the following problem: Consider the 5 year investment strategy and given the yearly portfolio returns $S_{t+1}/S_t$ and dividends $D_{t+1}$ paid at $t+1$ which are modeled as: ...
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0answers
27 views

returns series for daily strategy

I have a trend following OTC futures strategy which is trading a day-ahead commodity contract. If a signal is triggered the strategy goes long / short into delivery. The holding period of a contract ...
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1answer
35 views

VaR interpretation for positive returns

I used Extreme Value Theory to separate extreme negative returns from extreme positive returns, then, I calculated the VaR for both. I need to know what could be the interpretation of VaR for ...
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votes
1answer
150 views

How to compute simple and log portfolio returns?

I am looking for more details to perform simple and log returns for an entire portfolio. However, I've only been able to find the following semi-reliable source (see Page 9 and Page 19): Here are my ...
0
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1answer
56 views

How to calculate annualised tracking error?

I have 36 months of relative returns and I need to calculate the annualised tracking error. So, using 36 months of returns is it simply like below: ...
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3answers
47 views

Interpretation of t-test in event study with dummy regression

I am not sure about my interpretation of the t-ratios in dummy regression models for event studies. I have the results for two different groups of models examining the impact of news on stock returns ...
1
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1answer
50 views

Sharpe Ratio versus Cumulative Returns

I was asked whether Sharpe Ratio was a better measure than Cumulative Returns, in the context of hedge funds. To me, personally, Sharpe Ratio is a more important measure. By definition, it tells us ...
4
votes
2answers
133 views

Annualized Sharpe Ratio calculation

I'm trying to replicate the annualized Sharpe ratio of an buy-and-hold strategy for the Dow Jones Industrial Average index for a period consisting of multiple years. I got the daily DJIA (closing) ...
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1answer
34 views

Differences between dummy regression event study and regression on residuals from market model

I have two different event study approaches and I wonder if the results are exactly the same. Model 1 applies a dummy regression market model: (1) $R_{t}=\beta_{0} + ...
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2answers
102 views

Calculating log-returns across multiple securities and time

I've been getting very confused on the topic of calculating returns. To get cumulative returns in time, log-returns are used, but apparently log-returns aren't used across different securities at a ...
2
votes
4answers
121 views

How to interpret regression coefficients with dummy explanatory variables?

I am a bit confused about the interpretation of the regression coefficients in a regression model: $R_{t}=\beta_0+\beta_1R_{mt}+\beta_2D_{t}+\epsilon_t$ where $R_{t}$ is the log return of some ...
6
votes
1answer
104 views

How to compute returns and daily VaR of a currency position?

I have a Forex trading account with a base currency USD. I am holding a position in EUR/JPY and would like to estimate my daily VaR. If I compute the EUR/JPY returns using the historic prices this ...
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1answer
38 views

Testing day of the week effect

I am currently reading a bit about testing day of the weeks effects. I saw two different model specifications and wonder how to interpret the results. The first model type includes only 4 dummies for ...
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1answer
27 views

Adjust regression for thin trading

What procedures can I apply to control in a regression on company returns for thinly traded stocks? Is the inclusion of the SMB-factor a potential approach? Or just a dummy variable indicating if a ...
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1answer
30 views

Fitting (marginal/multivariate) distributions to financial return data

I have calculated the simple arithmetic return on a number of different financial securities and am fitting both a Student-T and Generalised Pareto Distribution. My question is can I just use the ...
2
votes
1answer
48 views

Multiperiod return formulae with dividends

I have a question about returns when dividends are 'paid'. Firstly, will write down some definitions: Let $P_t$ be the price of an asset at time t. Assuming no dividends the net return over the ...
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0answers
45 views

Stats and Hedge Ratio calculation questions

I did self-study and learnt some concepts to build a multiple leg spread /portfolio for trading but still confuse in some basic concepts. I will be very thankful if you can answer my couple of ...
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1answer
91 views

How to calculate returns and sharpe ratio for futures?

What is the industry standard way to calculate returns, which will be used to calculate sharpe ratio for e-mini S&P500?
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0answers
29 views

Relationship between yield spread and stock returns

I would like to ask the following question: Do yield spreads generally have a relationship with stock market indices like the S&P 500? If so, what kind of relationship? I have looked at numerous ...
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1answer
55 views

What P&L netting should one use when a strategy has trades in two different geographic locations?

I am familiar with the FIFO methodology of netting buys and sells to obtain a realized P&L and outstanding position. Suppose there's a strategy which runs in two different places A, and B and ...
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2answers
79 views

Portfolio Return Contribution by Sectors

I have a table containing the following fields: Date, PortfolioReturn, CashReturn, Sector1Return,...,Sector10Returns 'PortfolioReturn' is the sum of CashReturn + return contributed from 10 market ...
0
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1answer
42 views

Determining significant difference between to return series

I want to analyse whether two return series are different. I was told to run the following regression: ...
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1answer
132 views

What is the logic behind this backtesting code in R

I am new to R and I have found this simple backtesting code and can you explain me what is happening here. ...
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0answers
29 views

Poor investment preformance in early years impacting on final fund value

I am currently doing some work on the performance of funds across different models of the economy. I am trying to find some work that looks at the impact of poor/lower returns at the early years of ...
3
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1answer
160 views

Pair trading based on cointegration - equity line

I'm preparing a project at my Uni where I have to make a simple pair trading strategy using cointegration between two stocks. I'm stuck on the equity line calculation. I have prepared opening and ...
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3answers
228 views

Can Gaussianity of returns depend on the time frame?

I would be interested in knowing if the fact that returns are Gaussian is disproved on all time frames, or if, for example, the 5 minute intra-day time frame could exhibits Gaussian returns assuming ...
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0answers
102 views

Carry Trade vs synthetic Carry Trade using forward contracts

When it comes to foreign exchange carry trade strategy, the definition is straightforward: an investor borrows 1 USD in the US (low interest country) and invests that $1 to AU (high interest country). ...
4
votes
3answers
320 views

Comparing Returns on a Sector Basis

I'd like to compare the returns of a portfolio segregated by groups to the returns of those groups in total. So say for example I have a portfolio with 40% Industrials and 60% Technology, then over ...
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4answers
3k views

Appropriate method for calculating negative returns on a trading strategy?

I have a cumulative profit/loss time series below for a trading strategy, what is the appropriate way to calculate the returns in percentage for such a series? My issue is the appropriate ...
3
votes
1answer
108 views

French Data from daily to monthly returns

Ken French on his website publishes daily, monthly and yearly returns for the Fama-French 3 Factors model which are excess market (Rm-Rf), small-minus-big (SMB) and high-minus-low (HML) returns. I ...
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votes
3answers
1k views

Using rolling returns in a multivariate linear regression?

I am trying to use fundamental factors such as PE, BV, & CFO in a multivariate linear regression with the response variable being the rolling 1 month returns. But this approach seems flawed as the ...
2
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1answer
55 views

How to deal with missing returns when creating value (equal) weighted returns

recently I am doing cross sectional regressions, and getting confused about missing returns. Suppose we have 100 stocks, then we want to construct a value weighted return (or equal weighted return). ...
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0answers
20 views

continuously compounded(cc) return of a portfolio is not equal to the weighted sum of cc return of individual assets

In textbooks it is stated that the continuous compounded (cc) return of a portfolio is not equal to the weighted sum of cc return of individual assets as the log of the sums is not equal to the sum of ...
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8answers
8k views

Should I use an arithmetic or a geometric calculation for the Sharpe Ratio?

What are the advantages/disadvantages of using the arithmetic Sharpe Ratio vs the geometric Sharpe Ratio? Is one more correct? Or is one better in certain circumstances?
4
votes
2answers
85 views

Does heteroskedasticity of returns depend on the time frame?

Similarly to my last question, for which I obtained very interesting and useful answers, I would like to know if there has been any study regarding heteroskedasticity and time-frames of the returns. ...
3
votes
3answers
1k views

How to model the daily return using intraday data?

Say, I have hourly returns $r_1,r_2,...,r_T$, where $r_t$ = $ln(p_t)$ - $ln(p_0)$ for $t = 1...T$. So what is the value of $E[r_t]$? Would $r_T$ be the $\prod{(r_t)}$? Basically $r_t$s are the ...
2
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1answer
24 views

Calculating the rate of return over a year then the data for a year before does not exist

I am trying to find the growth rate of a stock over a given year. Let's say I wanted to find the growth rate from today, June 11, 2015 to June 11, 2014. This is easy enough when you have perfect ...
3
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2answers
3k views

Calculate Average Price, Cost, (Un)Realized P&L of a position based on executed trades

We have built an algorithmic trading software and need to calculate the following parameters for each position in our portfolio. Average Price Cost Realized Profit & Loss Unrealized Profit & ...
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1answer
77 views

Apply CAPM using returns on a foreign currency as the market returns

I want to analize Bitcoin returns using the CAPM. I was thinking if it makes sense to compare returns of (BTC/USD) against (EUR/USD), taking the latter as the market returns. However, since EUR is ...