The asset rate of returns is the profit on a particular investment; it includes any change in the asset value, interest, commission or dividends and so, all other cash-flows which an investors receive or pays due to the investment.

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544 views

T-note returns from T-note yields … derivation of Damodaran's formula

Damodaran's historical data on 10-year T-note returns (found here) uses the following formula to calculate the 1-period total return on a T-note ($R_1$) given the 10-year constant maturity ...
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53 views

Parametric bootstrap in generating returns and hypothesis testing

I am trying to test a hypothesis of a statistic calculated from portfolio returns. To do so I estimate a model on the original returns series and want to obtain 100 bootstrapped series using ...
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1answer
35 views

Calculate total risk [closed]

I have a question regarding how the risk is calculated, if I have only the returns. I think the risk premium (rp) is just the average of the returns and the sharpe ratio is the risk premium divided ...
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1answer
85 views

Drivers of equity returns: dividend yield, change in P/E and dividend (or earnings) growth

In an NBIM paper I read the following: "... one can break down the total equity return into the dividend yield (the starting valuation), the change in the P/E ratio (the change in valuation) ...
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1answer
48 views

Differences between dummy regression event study and regression on residuals from market model

I have two different event study approaches and I wonder if the results are exactly the same. Model 1 applies a dummy regression market model: (1) $R_{t}=\beta_{0} + ...
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1answer
38 views

Testing day of the week effect

I am currently reading a bit about testing day of the weeks effects. I saw two different model specifications and wonder how to interpret the results. The first model type includes only 4 dummies for ...
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114 views

How to calculate returns and sharpe ratio for futures?

What is the industry standard way to calculate returns, which will be used to calculate sharpe ratio for e-mini S&P500?
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1answer
15 views

Measure difference between estimations and historic returns

For every day in a year, I have the return on an asset and the CAPM estimation for the return. I want to measure the average difference between the set of returns and set of estimations. So far, I ...
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1answer
108 views

How to model the effect of earnings surprises on long-term returns?

I'm looking into modeling the relationship between EPS announcement surprises with long-term returns (1 quarter to 3 years with intervals). I've based my current methodology off papers looking at the ...
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1answer
121 views

right benchmark for an incompletely diversified international portfolio (for a CAPM): MSCI World or MSCI ACWI IMI?

I want to calculate annual excess returns on portfolios using monthly returns for a CAPM (for the assets in the portfolio as well as for the benchmark), in order to have more information on the ...
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1answer
2k views

how to chain monthly excess returns into annual?

I want to calculate annual excess returns on portfolios using monthly returns for a CAPM (for the assets in the portfolio as well as for the benchmark), in order to have more information on the ...
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0answers
34 views

Modelling log-returns and calculating the portfolio return

I know this might be a trivial question, however, I would be grateful for some clarification. I am working on weekly log-return data, doing volatility-foracasting using GARCH models and then using ...
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3answers
21 views

find the qth lower tail quantile

I have daily currency returns. For each month, I have to find the return associated to the 5% lower tail quantile for each currency (the lowest return or the second lowest return). Could you please ...
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58 views

Computing Overall Return for A Single Asset Given Inflows & Outflows

I am creating a portfolio tracking model in Excel and have run into difficulty on how to track the overall performance of a single asset, given that over time more and less capital (shares) has been ...
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61 views

How to calculate cumulative returns with one lag in R

I have a huge data frame with over 1000 column, which are companies(column headers) and in each column I have their estimated return(monthly). The sample period of the data frame in 11 years. I want ...
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86 views

Determining the investment strategy

I have the following problem: Consider the 5 year investment strategy and given the yearly portfolio returns $S_{t+1}/S_t$ and dividends $D_{t+1}$ paid at $t+1$ which are modeled as: ...
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1answer
34 views

Fitting (marginal/multivariate) distributions to financial return data

I have calculated the simple arithmetic return on a number of different financial securities and am fitting both a Student-T and Generalised Pareto Distribution. My question is can I just use the ...
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166 views

Carry Trade vs synthetic Carry Trade using forward contracts

When it comes to foreign exchange carry trade strategy, the definition is straightforward: an investor borrows 1 USD in the US (low interest country) and invests that $1 to AU (high interest country). ...
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75 views

Confused on interpretation of betas/alphas in regression in finance

I ran a regression on two stocks. I don't have the data in front of me, but it is a more conceptual question. Let's say SP500 returned a total 23% return over this time period and MSFT returned ...
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67 views

Calculating Asset Returns

The question pertains to a simple phenomenon. There is gold futures listed on Exchange A and Exchange B. Exchange A and Exchange B overlap times with A and B starting 8 hours later and A and B ...
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49 views

De-annualizing a target alpha return

apologies if this is not the correct place for this type of question, but I just want to confirm if the following de-annualization is correct. if a manager states that he will earn 200 bps of target ...
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69 views

robust regions in grid search

I have a strategy f that takes parameters x,y (for x,y taking values in integer ranges). I get two grids (of returns and volatility values) from computing f(xi,yi) for integer ranges x1 <= xi <= ...
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232 views

trading strategy outperforms passive strategy in absolute terms, but in returns vice versa. how could this be?

Background: I want to compare two trading strategies in term of profitability. The red one is an active trading strategy, which involves many entry and exit to a specific market. The blue one is a ...
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75 views

Sampling and/or asymptotic distribution of a function

Assume we have the following function: $$f(p) = \frac{1}{(1-p)d}\ln\left(\frac{1}{T}\sum_{t=1}^{T}\left[\frac{1+X_t}{1+Y_t} \right]^{1-p} \right)$$ where $d$ is a constant $T$ is a constant $X_t$ ...
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628 views

Long/Short portfolio return

Suppose I have a Po with one long, one short positions and some cash (to balance the short + 50% margin) as shown below: ...
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106 views

Insignificant or significant explanatory power over risk adjusted returns?

Currently iam working on my master thesis which is about risk adjusted returns in the Asia Pacific REIT market. The goal of the paper is to determine/find variables that conceive explanatory power ...
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69 views

Correlation between 2 stocks [closed]

If Stock A returns 5% on average in year Y And Stock B returns 2% on average in year Y Does this mean that correlation is 40%?
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193 views

Geometric Variance

If the arithmetic mean is: $ \frac { \Sigma (x_i) }{n}$ and the geometric mean is $ (\prod (1+x_i) ) ^{1/n}$ The arithmetic variance is $ \frac { \Sigma(x_i-\mu)^2 } {n} $ then what is the ...
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65 views

Is there any relationship between investment return of a stock, for individual year (Yearly return) and multiple years (Overall annualized return)

currently, I'm calculating the return of a stock, for individual year and multiple years. I tend to answer the following question. Return of a stock for end of year 2010 (Individual year) Return of ...
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2answers
374 views

Trading days or Calendar days for Compound Annual Growth Rate?

When calculating CAGR for intervals shorter than a year (or intervals that are longer than, but not integer years in length), should you use the 252 trading days or the 365.25 calendar days? The ...
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1answer
23 views

Which rate of return to use in portfolio weight estimation?

I am learning the basics of portfolio management. I am confused about different ways to calculate rate of returns mentioned in the text investment and portfolio analysis. There are three methods to ...
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2answers
57 views

How to calculate annual returns from daily prices?

Suppose I have daily adjusted closing prices for SPY, for example from yahoo finance. How from this calculate annual return? Note: It's NOT about issues like 1.2 means 20% or 0.2 means 20%. The ...
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2answers
116 views

Estimation of annualized volatility depending on data frequency - exceptions to the general rule?

From my understanding, the annualized standard deviation of daily returns is generally higher than of annualized standard deviation of weekly returns is generally higher than.... ...
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87 views

Volatility of EUR/USD: is this correct?

Let x be the closeBid price of EUR/USD, sampled every 5 minutes during year 2015 (historical data). This is the variation (is it ...
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74 views

Is the value also log-normally distributed?

My book assumes many times that $log(1+R)$ is normally distributed, so R is log-normal. But does this also mean that the value process is log-normal? Since $V=V_0(1+R)\rightarrow V/V_0=1+R$, and since ...
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1answer
123 views

Index creation from multiple time-series and variable weights

I am trying to compose one index out of several (three) indices with variable weights, 50%, 25% and 25%. After normalizing and calculating the log returns, what would be the best way to create the ...
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4answers
1k views

compute sharpe ratio for options?

Calculating sharpe ratio for shares is a straight forward task: (average returns - risk free ) / standard deviation. However i remain baffled as to how to tackle the task for options, can someone ...
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1answer
1k views

How to adjust local currency returns to US$/EUR return?

Iam doing research on return characteristics. As of today the scope of the research has changed from a local investor point of view to an international investor point of view. This basically means ...
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2answers
40 views

Portfolio Theory: Must VarCovar Matrix be based on return var/covar?

I am trying to estimate the minimum variance portfolio where the assets are currency derivatives. In the specific case it does not make sense to base correlations or variance on asset returns. I am ...
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2answers
55 views

Portfolio return for assets held for different lengths of time

How does one calculate the return on a portfolio if the assets in that portfolio were held for varying periods of time? For Example: $t_0$ Buy AAPL at 100 $t_5$ Buy MSFT at 20 $t_1$$_0$ Sell MSFT at ...
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1answer
266 views

How to calculate annualised tracking error?

I have 36 months of relative returns and I need to calculate the annualised tracking error. So, using 36 months of returns is it simply like below: ...
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1answer
73 views

What P&L netting should one use when a strategy has trades in two different geographic locations?

I am familiar with the FIFO methodology of netting buys and sells to obtain a realized P&L and outstanding position. Suppose there's a strategy which runs in two different places A, and B and ...
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1answer
84 views

Apply CAPM using returns on a foreign currency as the market returns

I want to analize Bitcoin returns using the CAPM. I was thinking if it makes sense to compare returns of (BTC/USD) against (EUR/USD), taking the latter as the market returns. However, since EUR is ...
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2answers
70 views

returns of Bonds and exchange rates

which are the best distributions in order to model the bonds and exchange rate returns distributions. I am searching for a distribution such as the log-normal one of the stocks ( N(m-0.5*v),Sqrt[v])
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98 views

What does 2 Year Annualized mean compared to 1 Year Annualized

I am looking at a company's financial report and there is a table in it that lists returns over different annualized periods. It ranges from 1 year to 20 years. Would a 2 year return in this table be ...
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16 views

R:log return calculation for panel data structure

I have a long form panel for hourly prices of stocks. I want to do log return calculation for this panel data structure. Below is my code: ...
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0answers
22 views

Why do people use weighted regression with returns?

For example, by ADV. Intuitively it makes sense that a very liquid high ADV stock should carry more weight, but when I try it with some real life data I get higher standard error than unweighted...is ...
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18 views

Calculating portfolio returns from a dynamic, optimal re-balancing strategy

I am calculating a dynamic strategy with optimal re-balancing as in here. As a result of maximizing the expected utility function I obtain the weight for the risky asset in period $t=0$. All such ...
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38 views

Intraday or overnight returns?

While calculating insider abnormal returns, closing prices of securities are generally used. We take the actual ex post return of the security i on time t, minus the expected normal return for the ...
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30 views

returns series for daily strategy

I have a trend following OTC futures strategy which is trading a day-ahead commodity contract. If a signal is triggered the strategy goes long / short into delivery. The holding period of a contract ...