The identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks, followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.

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540 views

Is there any open-source library, implementing “exchange” to be used for algorithms running on the same computer?

Question: Is there any open-source project/library, which can act as a "local exchange" for agents (algorithms), running on the same computer? Clarification: by "local exchange" I mean, that the ...
12
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3answers
2k views

Value-at-Risk of the sum of two dependent lognormal random variables

Hy I posted this question first at mathflow.net they suggested me this page, which I was not aware of. Question: Let $(X_1,X_2)$ be a multivariate normal random vector ($X_1$ and $X_2$ need not be ...
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1answer
744 views

What are the math topics involved in FRM 1

Is there a way to get the math curriculum for FRM level 1 without purchasing the Exam? I wish to take a look at the math topics and see if I have any chance of cracking it. But I could not find an ...
8
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1answer
170 views

When did volatilities start to smile in capital markets?

Glimpsing through literature, I read that volatilities in the equity market started to display a smile after the crash in 1987. But when did volatilities start to smile in capital markets?
2
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1answer
207 views

Portfolio risk decreased by increasing share of riskiest asset?

In Parker's The Economics of Entrepreneurship he explains how certain theoretical models predict seemingly bizzare things (e.g. people becoming more risk-averse resulting in them taking riskier jobs) ...
3
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1answer
230 views

Risk and Reward in practice

My question is a bit philosophical. As a risk manager I often have to tell portfolio managers to reduce risk (e.g. due to VaR limits or exposure limits). Then usually the discussion arises that if ...
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0answers
602 views

Examples of Spectral Risk Measures

Let's take the usual definition of a spectral risk measure. If we look at the integral we see that spectral risk measures have the property that the risk measure of a random variable $X$ can be ...
2
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1answer
520 views

Additive portfolio risk decomposition

In his paper Budgeting and Monitoring the Risk of Defined Benefit Pension Funds, Bill Sharpe writes: [...] the sum of the weighted marginal risks of the portfolio components will equal twice the ...
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1answer
190 views

Asynchronous Data Across Time Zones - RiskMetrics

I'm currently involved with a project to integrate RiskMetrics into our business and one issue we've identified is the treatment of market data timing across time zones. This can have the effect of ...
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0answers
93 views

How to show that the risk contribution function is or is not injective?

Assume a portoflio $w \in \mathbb{R}^n$, you can get the total risk contribution $\psi_i$ of asset $i$ by doing: $$\psi_i = w_i \frac{\partial \sigma(w)}{\partial w_i}= \frac{1}{\sigma(w)} \left[ ...
3
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1answer
534 views

Basel II modelling vs Solvency II modelling?

How do the two modelling frameworks compare? I spent some time developing PD LGD and EAD models for banking portfolios... But I never did insurance modelling project which I suspect is based on ...
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1answer
476 views

A non parametric study of VaR with kernel density

I'm working in order to compare the calculation of the VaR between the methodology of copulas and kernel density, all this by using the software r. The process that I follow is: Obtain a sample ...
3
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2answers
180 views

Risk theory is a part of financial mathematics

In my program on Financial mathematics we studied such topics as pricing, portfolio management, risk theory (probability of ruin of an insurance company) etc. However, now I often see a line between ...
4
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1answer
147 views

What is the analytic value of an asset's risk contribution, if $n=2$?

The marginal risk contribution of asset $i$ is defined by Roncalli in his paper on ERC as follows: $$\frac{\partial \sigma(x)}{\partial x_i} = \frac{1}{\sigma(x)} \left( w_i \sigma_i^2 + ...
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1answer
445 views

why banks shall keep short term gap position low?

I'm reading "Insights for Bank Directors" (http://www.stlouisfed.org/col/director/reference_view.htm), a good introduction to commercial banks, based on a virtual bank "Insight". It talks about Gap ...
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0answers
152 views

Quantitative risk management strategy for a large participant in an illiquid market

Are there any practical quantitative risk management strategies for a large participant in an illiquid market with a few dominant players? By a large partcipant I mean someone who has significant ...
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2answers
2k views

Is Unexpected Loss ever used in Basel II?

In Basel II, EL is useful. It's calculated as $$EL = PD \cdot EAD \cdot LGD $$ in advance IRB (internal rate-based approach), Correlation $$R = 0.12 \frac{1 – e^{-50 \cdot PD}}{1 – e^{-50}} + 0.24 ...
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0answers
170 views

Market Exposure and Hedging

Normally the Market exposure associated with your stock/portfolio is your delta for that stock/ portfolio. Basic idea of hedging involved here is buying/selling respective futures depending upon ...
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2answers
262 views

How to reactivate a risk mangement rule in an automated process

If some conditions are met (stop loss, trailing stop, take profit...) we will close ours positions (sell/buy) to avoid having more loss or to ensure profit. In an automatic trading system, it is easy ...
4
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1answer
628 views

Stability of correlations and volatility

I had a discussion recently about the stability of volatilities and correlations. If we take for example stocks and bonds (think of DAX and Bund) then I have seen changing volatilities (something like ...
3
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1answer
1k views

Modelling VIX Futures for risk management

I would like to model VIX futures. The aim is not pricing but risk management. Thus I want to get risk measures like volatility right and be able to accurately calculate correlations when the VIX ...
0
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1answer
145 views

how to quantify non-fundamental risk if variance is 100% discounted?

If there's better vocabulary, forgive me. If you were required to ignore variance as risk, how would you quantify non-fundamental risk? Many thanks in advance!
4
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1answer
452 views

Quantitative risk model for an open real estate mutual fund in Europe

How useful are quantitative techniques for the risk analysis/management of a open real estate fund? I am thinking about an approach for Europe (US and other markets are probably quite different - ...
5
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1answer
289 views

Are there any well known methods of testing through-the-cycle rating systems?

Rating systems, as defined by the Basel II Accord, can be classified into two broad types - through-the-cycle (TTC) or point-in-time (PIT) - and the probability of default predicted by such a system ...
4
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1answer
498 views

Applying interest rate shocks under Solvency II

I'm trying to figure out how one would apply the stress scenarios defined under the interest rate risk sub module of Solvency II. I understand that all future cash flows of an interest rate sensitive ...
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2answers
179 views

Liquidity in a market risk model based on historical simulation

I would like to model liquidity effects in my risk model which is based on historical simulation. I would like to develop a practical solution that still captures liquidity effects. Most probably I ...
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4answers
33k views

What are some examples of non-financial risks and contingency plans?

There are many online sources about common risk factors in investing and trading e.g. market risk, credit risk, interest rate risk. There are various factor models (Fama-French, Carhart) and risk ...
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2answers
2k views

Determining portfolio risk return in R given historical data for individual holdings?

Currently we compute portfolio risk and return via our own C# program. Historical data is stored in a SQL database. We want to compute the risk and return parameters - given a portfolio (i.e. not ...
2
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1answer
227 views

Risk management insurance (Solvency II / MaRisk)

I have a few different questions on topics involving an doing risk management in life insurance. If someone could shed some light on these issues, I would be very thankful. a) How does an actuary do ...
4
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1answer
498 views

Calculating portfolio VaR for (custom) leveraged products

I have been searching online for a few days regarding how to calculate portfolio VaR for a portfolio consisting of leveraged products - but so far, I have not been able to come up with anything ...
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2answers
1k views

Multi asset option portfolio risk management (greeks and FX exposure)

I am running an options book containing listed options across multiple products. I trade mostly equity and index related options - with a preference for European expiration products. I trade products ...
7
votes
1answer
393 views

What distribution should I apply to estimate the likelihood of extreme returns?

Say I have a limited sample, a month of daily returns, and I want to estimate the 99.5th percentile of the distribution of absolute daily returns. Because the estimate will require extrapolation, I ...
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1answer
2k views

Calculating portfolio allocation beta with different asset classes?

I'd like to calculate portfolio allocation beta on a portfolio that has different asset classes. The portfolio may be made up of: ...
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2answers
1k views

Usefulness of simultaneously buying triangular and multiple arbitrages on the Forex

I have a limited financial background but I'm trying to figure out the usefulness of buying size-n arbitrages (n > 3), and I wonder the kind of risks - if any - associated with such a strategy. Say ...
2
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1answer
282 views

Risk Decomposition of Index linked Bonds

Do you know how to decompose the risk of index linked bonds? To value a inflation linked bond, one plugs the real zero curve into the bond PV calculation, the real interest rate is as the fisher ...
5
votes
1answer
310 views

What's the best way to test/validate an interest rate lattice model

I have some implementations of interest rate lattice models. I would like to verify their performance. What would be the best approaches? Currently I compare pricings of some interest rate dependent ...
5
votes
2answers
217 views

How many data points are required to perform a fitting of GPD?

A friend of mine told me that their firm is using Extreme Value Theory (EVT) to compute value of the Expected Shortfall 99% of a portfolio for their asset allocation process. To do so, they try to fit ...
18
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4answers
2k views

How are risk management practices applied to ML/AI-based automated trading systems

A potential issue with automated trading systems, that are based on Machine Learning (ML) and/or Artificial Intelligence (AI), is the difficulty of assessing the risk of a trade. An ML/AI algorithm ...
9
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1answer
449 views

copula-marginal algorithm

has there been any interesting work or advances on the copula-marginal algorithm (CMA) as proposed by Attilio Meucci. I am unable to find anything on the web other then the original article, here is ...
7
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1answer
449 views

What is the optimal strategy when there is an equal chance for gain or loss but the size of the potential gain is larger?

I'm investigating a situation where the chance for gain or loss is the same, but the amount gained is greater than the amount that is lost. For example, the gain would be about 30% of the trade ...
8
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2answers
1k views

How to apply risk-parity portfolio construction to a dollar-neutral portfolio?

Long-only risk-parity portfolios have proliferated in recent years. An optimized long-only risk-parity portfolio requires that the asset weight * marginal contribution to risk of the asset is ...
4
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2answers
153 views

How do you handle short-term asset allocation with Hedge-Funds?

Assuming I want to run an optimization over a short period, say 2 years, I would decide to take daily values in order to compute the efficient frontier of a portfolio. That works fine as long as I ...
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4answers
2k views

What books should any quantitative portfolio manager or risk manager have as reference? [closed]

I'm interested to know what are the critical reference texts you rely on for portfolio or risk management? I mean those texts that you come back to because they are chock full of insight and know-how. ...
8
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1answer
682 views

Monte carlo portfolio risk simulation

My objective is to show the distribution of a portfolio's expected utilities via random sampling. The utility function has two random components. The first component is an expected return vector ...
6
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1answer
318 views

Which is a more appropriate choice of risk measurement in a utility function, CVaR or VaR?

What is the consensus on which risk measure to use in measuring portfolio risk? I am researching what is the best risk measure to use in a portfolio construction process for a long/short option-free ...
7
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2answers
626 views

Is there any research on applying state-space or dynamic linear models to forecasting equity risk premia?

Is there any research on applying state-space or dynamic linear models to forecasting equity risk premia on a security-by-security basis with a medium term horizon (say 3 month to 12 months horizon)? ...
5
votes
3answers
125 views

Which lags or percentiles should be run in a batch when calculating Value-at-Risk?

Are there any "standard" VaR calculations run in a batch? For example, testing a VaR calculation with a lag of 1,2, 5 or 10 days over 2 years? Same question for the percentile, 1%, 2.5%, 5% etc.
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3answers
1k views

What position-sizing methods are used in futures trading?

Beyond optimal / partial f and a few other older methods, there's very little information out there for futures trading.
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712 views

How do macro funds manage risk and model asset returns? Do they use factor models?

Some of the largest funds in the world are entirely macro-based: Soros, Brevan Howard, Bridgewater. They trade across asset classes, and seemingly with very concentrated allocations. What type of risk ...
5
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1answer
1k views

Value at Risk backtesting (kupiec)

I m doing my research on estimating Value at risk using different assumptions on volatility and then compare my results based on backtesting. I obtained results and just on question based on my ...