# Tagged Questions

The identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks, followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.

2k views

### Stressed Value at Risk vs Value at Risk

Just read some materials about SVaR. Is there only holding period that changes in comparison to VaR methodology?
2k views

### Calculating portfolio allocation beta with different asset classes?

I'd like to calculate portfolio allocation beta on a portfolio that has different asset classes. The portfolio may be made up of: ...
154 views

### References for PD / LGD estimates of low-default portfolios

Any recommendations or reading sources for estimating individual PDs and LGDs for a set of low-default assets (souvereigns, investment grade corporates)? Since observing no defaults at all, regular ...
473 views

### Is it wrong to use 'real world' probabilities for option valuation?

Is it wrong to use 'real world' probabilities for option valuation, even when the market is not liquid enough to delta hedge the option? My instinct is that it is wrong, because the time value of ...
946 views

### What are the math topics involved in FRM 1

Is there a way to get the math curriculum for FRM level 1 without purchasing the Exam? I wish to take a look at the math topics and see if I have any chance of cracking it. But I could not find an ...
466 views

### why banks shall keep short term gap position low?

I'm reading "Insights for Bank Directors" (http://www.stlouisfed.org/col/director/reference_view.htm), a good introduction to commercial banks, based on a virtual bank "Insight". It talks about Gap ...
77 views

### Clarification of The Market Portfolio

I am currently reading John C. Hulls' "Risk Management and Financial Institutions" and came across the following passage related to the efficient frontier and combinations of risky and risk-free ...
106 views

### Stochastic process theory question

*S follows a process $dS= mSdt + oSdz$ where m and o are constant. What is the probability followed by $Y=(Se)^{(r-t)}$. If S follows a process $dS= k (b-S) dt + oSdz$ where k, b, o are ...
308 views

### Difference between Risk avoidance and Risk transfer

I was hoping some could explain the two terms namely, risk avoidance and risk transfer. Also, can a risk be avoided by transferring it?
129 views

### What is the difference between these two Expected Shortfall definitions?

I have come across different ways expected shortfall is defined. e.g. $$ES_a(X)=\frac{1}{1-a}\int_a^1VaR_b(X)db$$ and $$ES_a(X)=\frac{1}{a}\int_0^aVaR_b(X)db$$ e.g. on Wikipedia's article. Are these ...
292 views

### What Matlab packages to I need as a Risk Analyst?

What toolbox are more suitable for a risk analyst. I found this: Optimization toolbox Global optimization toolbox Econometrics toolbox Financial toolbox Statistics toolbox And also I have as a ...
246 views

### Estimate correlation of time series whose histories differ in length

Very often in quantitative analysis (e.g. calculating portfolio volatility) we have to analyze various time series - mostly returns - whose lenghts differ. Risk systems usually apply a one-factor ...
47 views

### Greeks across different underlying

To monitor risk of a client portfolio, does it make sense to accumulate Greeks across different underlying? If yes, how can Greeks be normalized across different underlying?
28 views

### What are pre and post stress capital?

Fed papers make reference to a post-stress and pre-stress capital. I can't find definitions of these online, but from the context (below), it sounds like the post-stress capital is the estimated ...
43 views

### How to effectively hedge a Fixed-Term deal in a foreign currency?

Assume my firm is based in USD and agrees with some counterparty to buy, at time $T$, some quantity $Q$ of asset $A$ for a fixed price $K$. Assume also that $A$ prices and $K$ are denominated in EUR. ...
211 views

### Machine learning to build top 3 price scenarios over n days

I have a time series of closing prices for a given stock. I would like to formulate possible future scenarios for the price. My intention is not to use these "likely" scenarios to take any position. ...
139 views

### What are the different Credit Portfolio Management models and what are their advantages?

CreditMetrics, RiskMetrics(Algorithims), etc. are all different risk methodologies used by many banks. However, what are their advantages/disadvantages? I would appreciate your replies!
199 views

### Getting Parameter of Translated Gamma Distribution from Monte Carlo

Spin-off from here. (Edit) Main question: What do I do about a parameter whose suggested values range quite vastly? (Edit) Backstory: I am given data of loss values and the dates that correspond to ...
56 views

### Compute moments of aggregate loss using Monte Carlo

Spin-off from here. Richard referred to me an article that tells me how to get parameters of a translated gamma distribution to which I should consider fitting simulated aggregated loss values. The ...
298 views

### Get distribution for aggregate loss using Monte Carlo

I am given two data sets containing dates and losses (in some currency). Given a distribution for the amount of losses and an (a,b,0) distribution for frequency of losses, how can I use Monte Carlo ...
661 views

### Ex-Ante tracking error how to determine the look back period

I am looking to compare the ex-ante predictions against the post values. I am using a look back period of ranges from 1 year to 5 years to construct my covariance matrix that I am using for my ex-ante ...
1k views

### Multi asset option portfolio risk management (greeks and FX exposure)

I am running an options book containing listed options across multiple products. I trade mostly equity and index related options - with a preference for European expiration products. I trade products ...
44 views

### (Reproducible example) Conditional returns in GARCH-EVT-Copula context (with R)

I'm estimating a time-varying correlation matrix for the normal copula using the rmgarch package from R. I've found this code in the rmgarch.tests folder. I use the ...
18 views

### Liquidity horizons of risk factors categories

I'm reading the consultative document of the BCBS on the Fundamental Review of the Trading Book: http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs265.pdf Table 2 on page 16 shows the liquidity horizons for 5 broad risk ...
40 views

### Optimal portfolio construction questions [closed]

I am working on a paper that tries to build an optimal portfolio to hedge various risks (mainly interest rate risk). I have never done this before. Which software program should I use to create an ...
128 views

### Trouble verifying roll rate model

I found this paper on roll rate analysis via a google search. I would post a link, but every page is stamped with "CONFIDENTIAL" at the bottom (humorous since it is easily found). In a nut-shell, ...
22 views

### Methodologies behind shocking a composite index instrument, what assumption distinguishes these?

Suppose I have a composite index (rebalancing or non-rebalancing) that at present time has some base value $B_{\text{base}}$ in some base economy. I am in the process of shocking the economy on which ...
44 views

### Bayesian analysis in R: Probability of default, low default portfolios

I want to apply the knowledge of this paper (Bayesian estimation of probabilities of default for low default portfolios, by Dirk Tasche) in R, but I can't find the right bayesian package and functions ...
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### Why use Moody's KMV EDF for one year

If I were to use Moody's KMV proprietary database with expected default frequqncies(EDF) for sectors and countries, along with aggregations for financials and non-financials, significant banks etc: ...
44 views

### Vol surface changes as underlying moves

We market make in highly liquid, near term options markets. I want to build a risk report that tells us how our portfolio's greeks will change as the underlying moves. This is for risk management in ...
121 views

### CDS spread scenarios from historical market data

I'm searching for information on the best way to generate scenarios to be used in VaR or ES calculations, for CDS spreads. Given that we need significant historical data in order to achieve a decent ...
142 views

### Currency risk USD>EUR>EGP

Seeking input on hedging risk on USD to Euro with a 3rd component of payroll issued in Egyptian Pounds. We are a US corp invoicing a Germany entity in Euro with massive payroll being paid in Egyptian ...
32 views

### Commercial Vendors for Risk Management and Portfolio Optimization and Performance Attribution

So this question is directly about companies such as Axioma, Barra, Northfield, and etc. that provide risk management, portfolio optimization, and performance attribution related services. I want to ...
114 views

### How to calculate break-even point of merged plant/company?

The question goes like this : ...
17 views

### Multiple similar values simulation

Perhaps some of you came across the following task that I am trying to automate for @RISK, VOSE or other simulation software? I have a question as we are trying to use the software to estimate the ...
93 views

### Create Markets Bubble Indicator

I am trying to replicate a Bubble Indicator described here. The indicator is strictly based on calculating the regularity of price behavior to determine herding in multiple time frames. I tried the ...
242 views

### How to calculate global exposure via commitment approach for FX swaps?

How would you calculate global exposure for FX swaps using the commitment approach? In particular, would you take into account both legs? CESR guidelines (CESR/10-788) defines that the exposure for ...
46 views

### How to manage risk on a call calendar when underlying is falling

Let us say I bough a call calendar spread. Now, at expiry of the short option, the underlying has decreased significantly, and I am approaching my max loss(i.e both the options are close to 0). In ...
132 views

### Fixed Income risk attribution in the historical simulation of a sovereign bond portfolio

We use historical simulation for risk analysis. I.e. for each bond there is a repricing of the form $$P_j = PV(\text{yield curve in scenario } j),$$ where the yield curve is the zero rates curve of ...
151 views

### Risk measures, Risk Management and Financial Risk Area

I'm currently searching material about market risk and I learned about coherent risk measures, VaR, CVaR (or expected shortfall), volatility. All that because I have to make a Financial Risk Area for ...
20 views

### Standard errors clustered along the time dimension in pooled panel logit model

I'm trying to estimate a logit model on pooled panel data set (unit of observation is firm-year). My dependant variable is default indicator and I have several macro variables as independant variables....
38 views

### Doubt on risk cost criterion

I want to minimize some kind of risk sensitive cost. But, I am confused what cost criterion should I use. I am aware of only expected exponential utility. I want to know what are the other such ...
54 views

### proper choice of risk aversion parameter in the risk-sensitive cost-criterion

Suppose I want to minimize certain risk sensitive cost. Is it a valid question to ask what is the proper (also in which sense) choice of risk aversion parameter in the risk-sensitive cost-criterion ? ...
188 views

### How to projectP&L or drawdowns on pair trading , trading and portfolios? [closed]

This is for planning and risk management. I am stuck on the following thoughts - Back-test the trading strategy for a period similar to the one you expect and then project. Do the above using ...
97 views

### How to show that the risk contribution function is or is not injective?

Assume a portoflio $w \in \mathbb{R}^n$, you can get the total risk contribution $\psi_i$ of asset $i$ by doing: \psi_i = w_i \frac{\partial \sigma(w)}{\partial w_i}= \frac{1}{\sigma(w)} \left[ w_i^...
176 views

### Market Exposure and Hedging

Normally the Market exposure associated with your stock/portfolio is your delta for that stock/ portfolio. Basic idea of hedging involved here is buying/selling respective futures depending upon ...
65 views

### What information should be delivered to the client so they have enough information to manage their exchange rate risks? [closed]

The client can be a CFO or CEO. The information can indicators, charts, graphs, statistics, ratios, etc. I know the VaR is one of them.
422 views

### How to create a model or formula for evaluating trade opportunities

I want to build a formula to produce a score for a potential trade based on 4 variables, time, return, liquidity of security, and probability of failure. For a set of potential trades I first ...
145 views

### how to quantify non-fundamental risk if variance is 100% discounted?

If there's better vocabulary, forgive me. If you were required to ignore variance as risk, how would you quantify non-fundamental risk? Many thanks in advance!
50 views

### How is possible to relate volatility with risk?

I read that equallying voliatility with risk is one of the hardest critics on Quantitative Finance and that this is -indeed- the fundamental base of Quant. This question is analogous considering that ...