The possibility that a negative event (such as a loss) will happen.

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5answers
932 views

Do binary options make any sense?

Reading from "www.nadex.com" - the copy reads "Binaries are similar to traditional options but with one key difference: their final settlement value will be 0 or 100. This means your maximum risk and ...
5
votes
7answers
39k views

How to calculate unsystematic risk?

We know that there are 2 types of risk which are systematic and unsystematic risk. Systematic risk can be estimate through the calculation of β in CAPM formula. But how can we estimate the ...
5
votes
7answers
2k views

Recommendation for a book on CVA/Credit Risk and PD/LGD/EAD modeling?

I need suggestions for some good books on the following topics: Credit Value Adjustment (CVA) / Credit Risk Probability of Default / Loss-Given-Default / Exposure-At-Default modeling Any pointers ...
5
votes
4answers
812 views

Do low volatility stocks outperform high volatility stocks over the long run?

A recent article from Forbes seems to indicate that low volatility stocks outperform high volatility stocks over the long run. Does anyone have any supporting or contradicting evidence to this claim? ...
5
votes
3answers
116 views

Which lags or percentiles should be run in a batch when calculating Value-at-Risk?

Are there any "standard" VaR calculations run in a batch? For example, testing a VaR calculation with a lag of 1,2, 5 or 10 days over 2 years? Same question for the percentile, 1%, 2.5%, 5% etc.
5
votes
2answers
291 views

What is the significance of Relative Risk Aversion

I know that the relative risk aversion is defined as $$R(c) = cA(c)=\frac{-cu''(c)}{u'(c)}$$ where $u(c)$ denotes the utility curve as a function of wealth $c$. But I do not understand the intuition ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

Value at Risk backtesting (kupiec)

I m doing my research on estimating Value at risk using different assumptions on volatility and then compare my results based on backtesting. I obtained results and just on question based on my ...
5
votes
1answer
4k views

Annualzing the log of daily returns riddle

Two popular ways to measure returns are Arithmetic returns and Log returns. Let's define arithmetic (simple period) returns as: P(t) - P(t-1) / P(t-1). Let's define log return as Ln( P(t)/P(t-1) ) or ...
5
votes
1answer
260 views

Are there any well known methods of testing through-the-cycle rating systems?

Rating systems, as defined by the Basel II Accord, can be classified into two broad types - through-the-cycle (TTC) or point-in-time (PIT) - and the probability of default predicted by such a system ...
5
votes
1answer
354 views

Definition of risk factors for market risk scenario testing

I am doing a research for stress testing in market risk. The usual process I found out for scenario testing is: Define risk factors upon the portfolio Define the desired scenarios Vary the risk ...
5
votes
1answer
147 views

Are there quantitative models which can guide one's choice of target risk?

Note: This question was written for the weekly topic challenge. Many asset allocation funds presume the investor knows his target risk level, typically on some spectrum from conservative (mostly G7 ...
4
votes
3answers
457 views

Why should there be an equity risk premium?

After years of mathematical finance I am still not satisfied with the idea of a risk premium in the case of stocks. I agree that (often) there is a premium for long dated bonds, illiquid bonds or ...
4
votes
3answers
330 views

Why are factor models so popular for risk analysis of portfolios?

As titled, my question consists on asking for why in the most of academic papers one almost always finds that when you try to model asset returns, one needs to adjust for risk factors before analyzing ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Computing the Sharpe Ratio

The building blocks of the Sharpe ratio—expected returns and volatilities—are unknown quantities that must be estimated statistically and are subject to estimation error. The main problem I have is ...
4
votes
2answers
439 views

Choice of prior as a shrinkage target in portfolio construction?

There's various research showing how priors such as the minimum variance portfolio turn out to be a surprisingly effective shrinkage target in portfolio construction. The sell point of these priors ...
4
votes
1answer
145 views

questions on VAR manipulation

The book of Financial Risk forecasting by Danielsson gives the following example about VAR manipulation. I have two questions: 1) If $0> VAR_1 > VAR_0$ , why the following figure plots it as ...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

Performance Attribution : Annualizing alpha & factor return contributions

Let's say I have a factor model which I am using for Performance Attribution. I'd like to separate returns from alpha vs. returns from exposure to various risk factors. For each date, the factor ...
4
votes
2answers
185 views

Impact on bid/offer due to volume/size of trades placed

When observing bid/offer in the market I came across a question. How much trading a bond would impact its spread for subsequent trades ie. what is the impact on bid/offer due to volume/size of ...
4
votes
2answers
265 views

quantiative risk measure how they are implemented in R and their use

So far I have just theoretical knowledge of risk measure and never used them in application. Therefore I have some basic question how risk measures are used in reality and how they are implemented in ...
4
votes
1answer
146 views

Estimating investor's utility from the trades data

Is it possible to infer investor's utility function from the set of decisions she is making? Let's assume for simplicity that the market consists of a single traded asset whose return distribution is ...
4
votes
1answer
432 views

How to model the risk of a CFD

I'm struggling to understand why the risk on an equity CFD is not the same as for the corresponding equity. The RiskMetrics FAQ mentions two ways to model a CFD, but it does not explain why this is ...
3
votes
9answers
460 views

Why would there be a positive risk-free rate?

Most financial models include a risk-free rate or risk-free asset. Why should there be such thing as a positive risk-free rate? I dont see why an asset would provide a positive (real) return if it ...
3
votes
2answers
841 views

Covariance for arbitrarily large portfolios

I am implementing a method in Java to calculate the variance, covariance, and value at risk for a portfolio, which should be flexible for use with any number of assets in a portfolio. I am struggling ...
3
votes
1answer
219 views

Risk and Reward in practice

My question is a bit philosophical. As a risk manager I often have to tell portfolio managers to reduce risk (e.g. due to VaR limits or exposure limits). Then usually the discussion arises that if ...
3
votes
1answer
162 views

How do I model risks for specific short-term short calls in a portfolio with limited data?

I'm trying to do some risk analysis on a portfolio of bonds, currency, stocks and short calls. The short calls expire in approximately 15-30 days and I've only got around 20 days of pricing data on ...
3
votes
2answers
243 views

Where can I find a list of VaR and CVaR formulas for continuous distributions?

Where can I find more VaR and CVaR formulas for continuous distributions? I collected a list here:
3
votes
1answer
87 views

Is this comment right about subadditivity?

I found this comment in a book I bought about risk management: Risk Management in Banking by Joel Bessis. This is the well-known rule that states that the sum of individual risks is less than ...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

Optimal Choice of exceeding time

Suppose you hold a share from company $Z$ whose vaue at time $t$ is $S_0+\sigma B_t$ where $B_t$ is Brownian Motion and $\sigma$ denotes some volatility. Now lets assume that company $Z$ may go ...
3
votes
1answer
108 views

What are recent important papers on credit portfolio risk modeling?

I'm interested in papers which consider mathematical models of risks of different portfolios of retail credit. This is not my area of research, so I may be misusing some terms. The idea is simple: I ...
3
votes
1answer
264 views

Which measure to determine Risk?

Say I hold an equity and I want to calculate the Value-at-Risk over some period. Would one calculate the Value-at-Risk of the equity under a risk-neutral (as in martingale) measure or under the ...
3
votes
3answers
303 views

Risk prediction based on financial statements

I have a profit loss statement and balance sheet with the following fields: Example P&L Turnover420,363 - Cost of sales £118,730 £140,169 - Gross Profit ...
3
votes
1answer
695 views

Risk-free rate for ex-post evaluation of investment strategy

When evaluating the strategy ex-post using e.g. Sharpe ratio, what should one use as the risk-free rate? Let's suppose I am using a 1Y sample of weekly returns, sampled between 2012-01-01 and ...
3
votes
1answer
506 views

Long-term vs short-term strategies \ investing

Suppose most investors have very short investing horizons and use appropriate (for them) strategies, but investor X has a very long horizon. He would like to trade some advantages (early withdrawal ...
3
votes
0answers
17 views

conferences for credit portfolio managers

What are worth conferences for credit portfolio managers? I appreciate your recommendations! PS:I am aware that this question is not the typical quant.SE question, BUT I couldn`t find reliable ...
3
votes
0answers
272 views

Market risk stress testing?

I am doing a research for a paper for market risk stress testing. In fact I found some information on the web about this important topic such as: Stress Testing from Art to Science Stress Testing ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

Why using the swap curve as riskfree rate and no longer gov bonds?

I recently had an interview where I was asked what to use as risk-free rate. In all my textbooks it was always the US treasury yield curve. But they said no its now the "swap curve". Why is the swap ...
2
votes
1answer
219 views

Picking from two correlated distributions

Can anyone provide a simple example of picking from two distributions, such that the two generated time series give a specified value of Pearson's correlation coefficient? I would like to do this in ...
2
votes
2answers
342 views

Why is that a risk averse consumer buys the optimum insurance when there is actuarially fair insurance?

I think I understand the fact that when marginal utilities of the same function are equal (a consequence of the actuarially fair insurance), the independent variables in it must be equal -- right? But ...
2
votes
1answer
650 views

Is it possible to derive the “risk tolerance” from the portfolio efficient frontier?

I am trying to solve the Portfolio Optimization Problem using a "Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm". After obtaining the efficient frontier, I would like to know if we can infer for each point of ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

Drawdown calculation for strategies

I am developing a trading strategy for currencies. I am trying to find an indication for risk, something like Sharpe ratio or Sterling ration; for that, I thought of using the (maximum) drawdown ...
2
votes
1answer
131 views

Constant Relative Risk Aversion

The question: Consider a person with constant relative risk aversion p. (a) Suppose the person has wealth of 100,000 and faces a gamble in which he wins or loses x with equal probabilities. ...
2
votes
2answers
100 views

is there an accepted method for quantifying risk of inaccuracy of nascent trm systems?

Have a somewhat meta question here. I am part of a trading risk management implementation project. I also manage day to day risk reporting to management and the trading desks. Our implementation was ...
2
votes
1answer
396 views

Divergent or Convergent Strategies? Which is the way to go?

Consider first the simple convergent strategy to invest some amount $X$ in a game, if you win you simply take the winnings and keep playing a subsequent game. In the case of a loss, you believe in ...
2
votes
1answer
204 views

Portfolio risk decreased by increasing share of riskiest asset?

In Parker's The Economics of Entrepreneurship he explains how certain theoretical models predict seemingly bizzare things (e.g. people becoming more risk-averse resulting in them taking riskier jobs) ...
2
votes
1answer
134 views

Hedging differences between equity and index options?

Suppose we hedge an index option using futures on that index. How would the hedging strategy be different if the underlying could be traded directly (from a risk point of view)?
2
votes
1answer
103 views

Portfolio choice problem of a CARA investor with n risky assets

Ok, I am working on a problem that consists of the following: I am looking to solve the portfolio choice optimization problem (maximizing utility with a known utility function) in the case where all ...
2
votes
1answer
59 views

Variability in the Expected Shortfall estimator

Are there any results for calculating the variability in the Expected Shortfall measure. I am looking for Large sample confidence intervals under Normality for Expected Shortfall or calculation of ...
2
votes
1answer
49 views

What are the properties of the Expected Shortall measure when split in multiple time periods?

Suppose I have a single time series of losses $L$ that consists of two sub-parts $L_1$ and $L_2$. Is there a relationship that relates the expected shortfall of $L$ to the expected shortfall of $L_1, ...
2
votes
1answer
264 views

Which is the better risk sensitive measure?

Consider the two following optimization problem 1) $$ \min_{\theta} \ln E_{\theta}[ e^{X}]$$ 2) $$ \min_{\theta} E_{\theta}[ X]$$ with the constraint $$ Var_{\theta}[X] <c$$ Is it true that ...
2
votes
1answer
117 views

Is the volatility of a trader's wealth equal to the volatility of the underlying assets traded?

Assume that a trader trades in several stocks with different volatilities. The return of the trader's portfolio would be the weighted average of returns and the risk would be a function of the the ...