# Tagged Questions

Excess return per unit of deviation in return.

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### Is this a poorly written example, or could volatility in fact be negative?

I'm self-studying and I encountered the following example. It seems to suggest that volatility is negative in this example. I was under the impression that volatility can never be negative, both from ...
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### How to annualize Sharpe Ratio?

I have a basic question about annualized Sharpe Ratio Calculation: if I know the daily return of my portfolio, the thing I need to do is multiply the Sharpe Ratio by $\sqrt{252}$ to have it annualized....
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### Can I deduce a portfolio is inefficient by compare is Sharpe ratio to the on the one the tangent portfolio?

If I have a portfolio with a Sharpe ratio lower than the Sharpe ratio of the tangent portfolio, can I conclude something about whether or not it is efficient? If so, how/why?
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### Sharpe ratio highest amongst efficient portfolios?

I have a hard time understanding why the sharpe ratio corrresponding to the efficient portfolios is the highest possible. In my book, it states that the sharpe ratio of the efficient portfolios is ...
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### Geometric means, standard deviation, and sharpe ratios

I have 3 related questions: a) I've seen formulas for GM and GS which eithier do, or do not, involve taking the exponent. Which is right? i.e. for GM I've seen both mean(ln(1+rt)) and exp(mean(ln(1+...
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### How to compare Sharpe Ratios of different investment strategies (holding periods)

I am doing the momentum analysis and am trying to see, what strategy (based on trading frequency) yields the highest Sharpe ratio for different investment amounts. The trading frequencies I use are ...
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### Sharpe ratio with leveraged ETFs

There has been a discussion about how leverage affects Sharpe Ratios, but not in the context of leveraged ETFs (such as 2x or 3x). I'm just wondering how leveraged ETFs, if at all, change the ...
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### Do I calculate weights of assets correctly?

I solved attached question but I am not sure whether I did part a and c correctly. Is there a way to calculate weights of A and B by just knowing their standard deviation and correlation's value?
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### Sharpe Ratio : why the normalization factor?

I try to understand why a $\sqrt{252}$ normalization factor is useful for Sharpe Ratio: Let's compute the Sharpe Ratio for this imaginary portfolio, for various sampling periods: ...
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### Multi-year annualized Sharpe Ratio

I'm taking a quiz, and trying to calculate the annualized Sharpe ratio of 11 years' worth of SPY fund monthly returns vs. a risk free investment return of 1.5%. When I write the function in Excel as <...
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### Significance testing of average returns from Sharpe ratio

I'm aware that one way to do significance testing on a strategy is based on the sampling distribution of its Sharpe (see, e.g., Lo, 2002 and Opdyke, 2008). However, it appears to me that there's ...
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### Sharpe Ratio versus Cumulative Returns

I was asked whether Sharpe Ratio was a better measure than Cumulative Returns, in the context of hedge funds. To me, personally, Sharpe Ratio is a more important measure. By definition, it tells us ...
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### Annualized Sharpe Ratio calculation

I'm trying to replicate the annualized Sharpe ratio of an buy-and-hold strategy for the Dow Jones Industrial Average index for a period consisting of multiple years. I got the daily DJIA (closing) ...
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### What is an acceptable Sharpe Ratio for a prop desk?

What should be the value of a Sharpe Ratio for an intraday quantitative strategy to be accepted by a bank or hedge fund's prop desk? Let's assume the returns are daily changes in account equity, close ...
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### Sharpe Ratio for strategies with different rebalancing period

Strategies published in journal papers like SMB, HML, UMD have annualized sharpe ratios around 0.5. These long-short portfolios are formed with monthly rebalance. People who backtest some daily ...
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### How to calculate returns and sharpe ratio for futures?

What is the industry standard way to calculate returns, which will be used to calculate sharpe ratio for e-mini S&P500?
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### Difference between Sharpe Ratio and Information Ratio

I am finding it difficult to understand the difference between the sharpe ratio and the information ratio and the relationship between the two, and cannot find a decent reference that breaks it down ...
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### Annualised Sharpe Ratio for Index vs Index Benchmarking

I am currently writing a paper about the performance characteristics of alternative energy equity indexes and am therefore comparing them to their benchmark indexes (msci world, etc). To calculate the ...
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### Stochastic Optimal Control for ratios

Do you know any good papers on methods of Stochastic Optimal Control and Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman(HJB) for optimization of different ratios(Sharpe, M2, Sortino, Sterling, etc.)? Meaning that using ...
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### Sortino Ratio calculation

I've been using an excel template to calculate the sortino ratio for my automated trading strategies. http://investexcel.net/calculate-the-sortino-ratio-with-excel Basically i input my monthly ...
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### How do I find the Sharpe Ratio?

Suppose I'm given two assets, x0, x1 and the stochastic discount factor m. How do I find m_p, then use it to compute Sharpe(R_p)? Any help is greatly appreciated.
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### Sharpe Ratio vs Net Profit vs max drawdown

When evaluating the performance of an algorithm, what should hold more importance? Sharpe Ratio , Net profit or max drawdown? For instance, I have two algorithms one performs very good on Stocks with ...
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### Sharpe Ratio for loans

I am trying to calculate the sharpe ratio for a set of loans. These loans have already matured and I know if they were good or not: grades are the different grades of the loans. interest rate is the ...
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### suitable benchmark to use for Sharpe ratio of power trading strategy

I have a algo which is trading a certain power contract. For calculating the Sharpe ration what would be a suitable benchmark to use?
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### How to calculate the Sharpe ratio for market neutral strategies?

Suppose I am long one stock and short an index in a ratio effectively making market beta as zero and I close the position with some positive P&L. How should I calculate the return for the ...
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### How high of a Sharpe ratio is implausibly high for a low-frequency equity strategy?

I am looking to convince someone that an annualized Sharpe Ratio of 7 is 'extremely high' for a low frequency (daily rebalancing, say) long-short technical strategy on U.S. equities. I was hoping for ...
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### Bootstrapping Sharpe Ratios

A similar question to this was asked here: How do i test the significance of Sharpe ratio of a strategy using bootstrap I have bootstrapped the original time series (using block bootstrapping) and ...
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### Sharpe ratio in days with no open positions

Should I include or not the days a strategy has no open positions (thus no returns) in the Sharpe ratio calculation?
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### Sharpe Ratio - my own calculation differs from Yahoo finance, Morningstar

I am trying to compute the Sharpe ratio for my portfolio. To check that I am doing this correctly, I am first trying to compute it for SPY (the S&P 500 index). ...
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### Should Sharpe ratio be computed using log returns or relative returns?

I am trying to reconcile some research with some published values of 'Sharpe ratio', and would like to know the 'standard' method for computing the same: Based on daily returns? Monthly? Weekly? ...
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### Sharpe Ratio and time spent in loss

Is it possible to express, given an annualized Sharpe Ratio value, what is an expected maximum/average time spent in a draw-down or something in this manner? E.g. with SR of 10, you'd expect to spend ...
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### Intuitive explanation of the Hansen-Jagannathan bound

The Hansen-Jagannathan bound states that the maximum Sharpe ratio of a portfolio can't exceed the ratio of the standard deviation of a stochastic discount factor to its mean. I more or less understand ...
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### Sharpe Ratio, annualized monthly returns vs annual returns vs annual rolling returns?

I would like to calculate the Yearly Sharpe Ratio on MSCI World index I have monthly values of the index that falls back up to Jan/1970, hence about: 44 years, 528 months In order to calculate ...
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### Normality assumption in Sharpe ratio

I have read that the Sharpe ratio imposes a normality assumption, but I fail to see how. Standard deviation is statistic for any type of distribution. Anyone have any ideas?
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### Calculate Daily Returns for Sharpe Ratio

For the purposes of Sharpe ratio, I calculate a trading strategy's daily returns using realized P/L only: $$\frac{K(t + 1) - K(t)}{K(t)},$$ where $K(t)$ is the cash balance after market close on day ...