# All Questions

4k views

### Are public historical time series available for ratings of sovereign debt?

The nice list of free online data sources Data sources online does not mention any data from ratings agencies. Are historical time series available for sovereign credit ratings (other than as ...
703 views

### How is historical data for forex collected or computed?

I'm looking at four sources of forex data, as compiled in the question, What data sources are available online? And I think I must be misunderstanding something, perhaps something fundamental, but I'm ...
25 views

### The Public Market Equivalent measure in private equity

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Public Market Equivalent measure in private equity? Why is it that the volatility of the cash flows do not matter? This topic has been discussed in a ...
179 views

### An alternative to the Gaussian distribution to describe/fit market stock returns

After the financial crisis in 2008, many people (including me) don't really believe that stock returns can be described in terms of the normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). But besides the ...
43 views

### Wiener process proof

Can someone prove to me how $dW_t=W_t-W_s$, where $t=s+1$, the difference of the Wiener process eventually equates to $dW_t=z*(dt)^{(1/2)}$ where $z$ is standard normal, $N(0,1)$ in the following ...
265 views

### How to prove that markets are incomplete under the Stochastic Volatility model?

Has anyone ever formally proved that Markets are incomplete under the stochastic volatility model? I know that if there are more random sources than traded assets, then the market is incomplete but ...
79 views

### Is Behavioral Finance relevant to quants?

This topic has been prompted by the following question: Measuring Behavioral Finance Effects in Fund/Portfolio Manager Analysis After reading it and the comments below I started thinking whether ...
27 views

### Attributing change in yield as a result of structural change

Suppose your portfolio has $w_0$ amount of bonds with yield $r_0$. Now you buy additional $w_1$ amount of bonds with yield $r_1$, then buy additional $w_2$ amount of bonds with yield $r_2$. ...
36 views

### What's the underlying idea of definition of constrained market in Skiadas' Asset Pricing Theory?

I'm self-studying Skiadas' Asset Pricing Theory, and find the definition of constrained market on page 21 confusing(you can find it here in the sample chapter). Deﬁnition 1.26. A constrained ...
619 views

### How to normalize stock data

Please advise how can i normalize stock prices. Recently, I've been using such formulas: Log prices = Ln(Close(t)) Close(t)-Mean (Close(t)-Mean)/(StdDev) Ln(Close(t))-Mean Is there any other ...
41 views

### different amount of information on return correlations from shorter and longer periods?

I want to calculate annual excess returns on portfolios using monthly (total) returns for a CAPM (for the assets in the portfolio as well as for the benchmark), in order to have more information on ...
63 views

### right benchmark for an incompletely diversified international portfolio (for a CAPM): MSCI World or MSCI ACWI IMI?

I want to calculate annual excess returns on portfolios using monthly returns for a CAPM (for the assets in the portfolio as well as for the benchmark), in order to have more information on the ...
40 views

### Volatility Minimum Analysis for Trading

I have been back testing some algorithms against a low volume highly volatile stock. I've found that during low volatile periods the technical indicators are following noise more than real trends. ...
86 views

### What are DGTW adjusted returns?

Many papers, e.g. in The Journal of Finance, discuss DGTW adjusted returns (or DGTW abnormal returns) instead of just returns. What are these and how does one compute them?
21 views

### Approaches to check/validate the output of an optimization algorithm

Let's say we want to optimize the a function $f(x_1,\dots, x_n)$ with $(x_1, \dots , x_n) \in \mathbb{D}^n$. For the sake of simplicity let $\mathbb{D}^n$ be the unit sphere. We chose an optimization ...
51 views

### 3 Factor HJM model, do these factors have an economic meaning?

In the HJM model, in case we have 3 factors, do these factors have an economic meaning at all ?
25 views

### How to calculate Rm knowing volatility?

I have a regression model where I need to use the return on the market (Rm). However, it is not given in the exercise, I only know the market index return volatility as well as the volatility of the ...
88 views

### Delta Neutral / Gamma Neutral Positions

I've been trying to find out more about options positions which are both delta neutral and gamma neutral--created with some kind of calendar spread. Supposedly, such a trade will be perfectly hedged ...
21 views

### measuring the performance of round-trips on stocks

can you provide me with some ideas to assess the profitability of round-trips? That is when I buy 100 shares of IBM at 10\$and I resell them two days later at 11\$, how can I measure the profit made? ...
70 views

### Do intraday volume and volatility share the same properties?

volatility clustering and mean reversion are very well known properties that one could use when trading. Traders, especially in options world, do take realized vol into account (e.g. by forecasting it ...
20 views

### regarding Basel III IRB method for credit risk

Would the exposures between standard method and internal rating based method for credit risk under Basel III remain same?I could not find any documents for IRB approach under Basel III. Is it still ...
38 views

### What would be an alternative if the VaR model is not acceptable?

Assume we have a VaR model wich says : the lost should not exceed X for more 3 days and we come up with more days where the lost exceeded X, what is usually done for the VaR model ? Do we switch to ...
108 views

### Which interest rate model for which product

Given the multitude of existing interest rate models (ranging from simple to very complex) it would be interesting to know when the additional complexity actually makes sense. The models I have in ...
33 views

### How to backtest the VaR model?

I have a sorted historical P&L vector of 250 days and say, I want to calculate the 90% VaR on this distribution. I will look for the 225 element (90% * 250 = 225) and this will be my Value at ...
29 views

### Zakamouline Optimal Hedging of Options with Transaction Costs

I've read that the Zakamouline method suggests the best optimal hedging of options when taking transaction costs into account. I've read the article but am having difficulty understanding it well ...
162 views

### Expected Shortfall (CVaR) Backtesting

I am writing my thesis on VaR and ES risk measurements and have encountered some issues with how to best test the accuracy of ES estimates. My understanding of the topic is that backtesting ES ...
890 views

### Measuring liquidity

While liquidity is one of the key figure of financial markets, It seems to be very difficult to measure. Volume is sometime used as a proxy but can sometimes be completly irrelevant. Could you point ...
38 views

### How come the existence of ARCH effect is not a violation of Random Walk Hypothesis 3?

An ARCH (autoregressive conditional heteroscedastic) (1) model is: $r_t=\mu +a_t$, where $a_t=$return residual, and $\mu$ is the drift of the stock return $a_t=\sigma_t\epsilon_t$, where ...
50k views

### What data sources are available online?

What sources of financial and economic data are available online? Which ones are free or cheap? What has your experience been like with these data sources?
258 views

### Resources for performance statistics of trading systems

I'm looking for an online resource to study the usual performance statistics (CAGR, MaxDD, Payoff Ratio, Win/Loss Ratio, etc.) of trading systems, preferably trend-following systems. I know that ...
679 views

### What is the necessary level of Econometrics-Know-How for a quant

It seems quants increasingly use econometric models at work. As someone who has sold his soul to probability theory and stochastical analysis I would like to catch up. What are the econometric tools ...
37 views

### Copula Value At Risk

Let's suppose I have two asset in my portfolio. I want to compute Copula Value At Risk. Can you help me? This is the code I wrote: ...
57 views

### Practical implementation of Least Squares Monte Carlo (tweaks and pittfalls)

The Longstaff-Schwartz LSM approach is nowadays ubiquitous(at least in the academic literature) in pricing path dependant derivatives. Up to now I have mostly worked with lattice methods. My ...
15 views

### Gibson & Schwartz (1190) - Time series empirical properties and Stochastic Process assumed

Gibson and Scwhartz in their paper "Stochastic convenience yield and the pricing of oil contingent claims" assume a log normal process for the spot price. They later claim to justify this process ...
568 views

### Can the Heston model be shown to reduce to the original Black Scholes model if appropriate parameters are chosen?

Summary For Heston model parameters that render the variance process constant, the solution should revert to plain Black-Scholes. Closed from solutions to the Heston model don't seem to do this, even ...
486 views

### Back office processing for FX trades

Can someone provide (or point me to) a summary of back office processing nuances specific to FX trading? For example, I know that there are several FX-specific risks that must be managed. They include ...
37 views

### How to obtain specific information on FX trading systems?

I'm trying to compare trading venues using a quantitative product selection matrix (and eventually software vendors using a different matrix specifically for vendors), and I was wondering if anyone ...
1k views

### What does it mean to modify the factor loadings of a credit risk model?

I came across an example where a well-known weakness of a credit risk model was dealt with by augmenting some of the existing risk factors via increased factor loadings. This made the the model more ...
616 views

### Multi Factor Credit Risk Models

I am working in the area of building credit risk models. Upto this point, the model I have been focused on using the Asymptotic Single Factor Model, more popularly known as Vasicek Single Factor ...
135 views

### Algorithmical replication of a profit and loss function using different options

I often see questions like "Given this payoff graph (example below), construct a portfolio that replicates it." I want to know if there is an efficient method/algorithm to find the individual pieces ...
19 views

### Markit PMI vs ISM PMI

What is the difference between the Markit Manufacturing PMI and the ISM Manufacturing PMI? The monthly number differs a lot, my understanding is that they are trying to indicate the same thing.
55 views

### Can the duration of a bond be greater than Time to Maturity

In the case of a vanilla bond I know that the duration will be less than the time to maturity. But I am observing that for a non-vanilla bond, the duration is greater than time to maturity. Can ...
7 views

### Collateralized Derivative [on hold]

Could someone kindly help define and scarify what collateralized derivative is? I saw that term in some paper about OIS curve discussion... thanks.
182 views

### Option pricing using fourier transform [on hold]

I am trying to compare option price given by Carr and Madan method using fft with value generated by BS model and find out the error between the two method. I want to plot this error graph(3d graph as ...
17 views

### Rationale behind formula for pivot point calculation

Is there any objective rationale or mathematical reasoning behind the following formula for pivot points and intra day support and resistance levels? What are the underlying assumptions for the ...
15 views

### Where can i find financial data of CDO's starting from 1996

I'm searching for financial information on CDO's from 1996. These infos should include: Collateral,Type (RMBS, CMBS, CDO2, CLO, ABS,etc.) their course, Underlying, Rating, duration,year,and interest ...
99 views

### Explanation or implementation of Ledoit-Wolf estimator (without math packages)

I have calculated weights of selected assets in a market-neutral portfolio (presumably with min variance) using PCA and simple data covariance matrix. The question is : It is obvious that Cov Matrix ...
33 views

### Wolfram Mathematica Black-Litterman momentum strategy? [on hold]

Hi! I need your help, does anybody know how to implement into the wolfram mathematica software Black-Litterman momentum strategy? thank you in advance....