# All Questions

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### How to calculate a forward-starting swap with forward equations?

I have been trying to resolve this problem for some time but I cannot get the correct answer. The problem is the following one. Compute the initial value of a forward-starting swap that begins at ...
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### How can I export intraday frequency data from Bloomberg and (how) is this procedure different than for lower frequencies?

For a research project, I would like to work with some intraday asset prices. I have already successfully exported the corresponding data at daily frequency, using the Excel API, but somehow this ...
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### How to estimate CVA by valuing a CDS of the counterparty?

I'm trying to estimate CVA of one of my derivatives by valuing a credit default swap (CDS) of my counterparty. However, I don't know how to set up the CDS deal (notional amount, maturity, etc.). ...
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### Hot do I calculate an effective forward rate? [on hold]

I have to find nominal and effective forward interest rate for 3M-9M term, knowing that current interest rates are: 3M - 2.05% 6M - 2.04% 9M - 2.03% 12M - 2.02% For a nominal interest rate I just ...
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### Does it make sense to use upward and downward volatility in option pricing?

Historically stocks have a higher likelihood to increase in price than to fall in price. As such would it make sense to split a stocks volatility measurement into upward and downward components? For ...
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### Longer term average probabilities of fills at fx ECNs?

I am wondering whether anyone can share experiences and longer term average probabilities of fills when quoting inside the spread at various fx ECNs. I need to make an assumption of the probability of ...
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### Any Simple Way to Prove Black Scholes Type Identies?

A certain complicated option pricing formula results in products of Black Scholes $N$ components like this: $-p_1N(d_1)N(d_6)+p_sN(d_2)N(d_5)>?0$ where $p_s>p_1$ Trying to find a simple way ...
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### Estimating Number of “Day Trades” from Total Volume of Commodity Futures Contract

Looking at futures data I am trying to calculate/estimate the number of "day trades", i.e. positions that were initiated and closed during the same day, as distinct from those positions that were ...
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### What is the future value of a growing annuity with different periods for payment growth and monthly payments?

How can I modify the formula in this answer so that the frequency of payment growth is also a variable? For example, instead of payments growing by 2% each year I would like them to grow 2% every two ...
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### Cost of carry for posting bonds as collateral

Cost of carry for posting bonds as collateral How do you calculate cost of carry for posting bonds as collateral?
Given: Consider a two-asset, continuous time model (B,S) where $$dB_t = B_t r dt, \quad dS_t = \mu dt + \sigma dW_t.$$ The question is: How to show that the number of ...