# All Questions

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### Estimating Number of “Day Trades” from Total Volume of Commodity Futures Contract

Looking at futures data I am trying to calculate/estimate the number of "day trades", i.e. positions that were initiated and closed during the same day, as distinct from those positions that were ...
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### Future value of a growing annuity with different periods for payment growth and monthly payments?

How can I modify the formula in this answer so that the frequency of payment growth is also a variable? For example, instead of payments growing by 2% each year I would like them to grow 2% every two ...
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### Cost of carry for posting bonds as collateral

Cost of carry for posting bonds as collateral How do you calculate cost of carry for posting bonds as collateral?
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### Bachelier model: number of stocks in replicating strategy

Given: Consider a two-asset, continuous time model (B,S) where $$dB_t = B_t r dt, \quad dS_t = \mu dt + \sigma dW_t.$$ The question is: How to show that the number of ...
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### Is the Volatility of the Fx Inverse process same as Fx

Let St = Fx and St(Inverse) = 1/Fx. Do both of these have same volatility and if so how would you prove it?
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### Foreclosure Implications on CMO Cash Flows

I have a simple homework project where I am to create some models to value a CMO. Please make any simplifying assumptions necessary to provide an answer. Prepayment is simple to account for. This ...
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### use synthetics for a pairs trading strategy

Let us say I want to pursue a pair trading strategy between stock A(long) and stock B(short). Can I replace this stocks with their synthetic option equivalents and have the same risk reward profile ...
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### Why Statistical arbitrage is no logner useful [on hold]

Are there any white papers, articles that briefly explain why statistical arbitrage is no longer useful? Should I just buy the book by Andrew Pole?
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### Is the volatility for these two SDEs the same

$$(1) \ \ d\left(\frac{1}{S_t}\right) =\frac{1}{S_t}\left(\sigma^2-r\right)dt +\frac{1}{S_t}\sigma dW_t$$ and $$(2) \ \ dS_t = S_t rdt + \sigma S_t dW_t$$ How can you prove that?
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### What math concepts are used in designing volatility models

What topics in statistics and mathematics do I need to understand thoroughly before I can start to dabble with stochastic volatility models and volatility arbitrage?
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### Is it possible for two securities to have the same first 8 characters of a cusip, but differ in the check sum?

CUSIP is a 9 character long identifier. The last digit is a check sum checking the first 8 previous characters. This seems to me that it is not possible for two securities to have the same 8 ...
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### Why gamma for ATM option decreases as volatility increases

Why is the gamma for an at the money option less when volatility increases. Intuitively ,I thought that increasing volatility means more uncertainty,hence the option price will be more sensitive to ...
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### What are the dynamics of the reverse of this FX process?

Assuming the dynamics of the exchange rate between two currencies at time $t$ is given by: $$dX_t=\Delta r X_t dt+ σ X_t dW_t$$ Is the FX Reverse process $\frac{1}{X_t}$ a brownian motion? How can ...
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### Overlapping Value-at-Risk Backtest Data an Issue?

My understanding of VaR model back testing is thus: ~~ t: Calculate daily VaR using look back data over n past days t+1: Compare daily return against VaR, record breach if one occurred, repeat ...
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### Modified or Macauley Duration in python

are there any existing python modules that can calculate Modified and/or Macauley Duration of a bond.
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### Libor Market Model: numeraire change

I am currently studying the Libor forward market model, and although I get the mechanics behind the main arguments, I still do not have an intuitive idea of what's exactly the objective behind ...
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### PCA on term structure of interest rates

Interest rate time series seems to be non-stationary whenever test is performed But covariance or correlation matrix is derived from term structure time series which are non stationary and later PCA ...
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### When $C(K_2) = C(K_1)$ for call options with the same expiration date

The exercise is to show $C(K_1) \geq C(K_2)$ where C(K) denotes the value of a call option on a stock price S with strike price K. We assume the expiry is the same for both. I have proved this by ...
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### Where to get master list of mutual funds?

I cant seem to find a straight answer anywhere on Google for this. I would like to create a master list of all known mutual funds and their ticker symbol. Is it possible to get this data from ...
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### Need guidence on quant trading [closed]

I am just learning quant trading and i want to trade based around probabilities. What do i need to learn to achieve this goal? Do I need to learn C, SAS, Excel? Also what is the best data feed to ...
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### ZSpread in multiple curve framework

how do I calculate ZSpread for a govt. bond in a multiple curve framework? I have not come across the exact details anywhere so I want to verify if I'm right. Below is my understanding, please correct ...
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### Impact of Greeks on PnL for FX Option [closed]

How to calculate Delta PnL, Gamma PnL, Vega PnL for an FX option?
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### How to price an European call on zero-coupon from the yield curve?

It is known that the price of an European call of maturity $T^*$ on zero-coupon of maturity $T$ is given by $$p(0,T)= B(0,T^*)\mathbb E ^{\mathbb Q_{T^*}}\left[ (B(T^*,T)-K)^+\right]$$ where ...
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### Total return index for interest rates (EURIBOR 3M)

I would like to calculate a daily total return index for the EURIBOR 3M. • Should I freeze at the beginning of each qurter die rate? (With this methology the developing of the index depends on the ...
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### Calculation of Returns and Risk Metrics for L/S Portfolio

I am trying to build a test for a long/short portfolio. I am aiming for market neutral and have put together a long portfolio as well as a short portfolio (see below). However, I am not sure if I am ...
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### Why IV shares an inverse relationship with underlying

Why does implied volatility usually fall when underlying rises and rises when underlying falls? Implied volatility is a length of one standard deviation. From this definition, is it possible without ...
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### What is delta neutral

Does delta neutral portfolio mean you add up deltas of all positions and the sum should be zero? Is this true? Also, in a FX portfolio consisting of FX calls puts and Fwds, if FWD delta is given for ...
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### Relation between IV and SD

In option pricing, volatility naturally appeared through the Black-Scholes (BS) model where it was a coefficient for the linear diffusion term $\sigma S\,\mathrm dW_t$, and as such represented the ...