# All Questions

3k views

### Algorithm to fit AR(1)/GARCH(1,1) model of log-returns

I am fitting numerically an AR(1)/GARCH(1,1) process to index and stock log-returns, $r_t=\log(P_t/P_{t-1})$, where $P_t$ is the price at time $t$, and thus far am not clear on where the observed log ...
296 views

### For pricing, what types of Exotic Options are suitable using Local Volatility Model / Stochastic Volatility Model?

I understand that Stochastic Vol Models should be used when Exotic Option payoff is Volatility dependent (such as Variance Swaps and Volatility Swaps). Stochastic Vol Models should also be used when ...
519 views

### Black-Scholes: Why the focus on volatility?

We know Black-Scholes is an imperfect model for options pricing. Why is so much of the analysis of its defects focused on implied volatility? The fact that IV varies for the same stock at the same ...
86 views

6k views

### How to normalize stock data

Please advise how can i normalize stock prices. Recently, I've been using such formulas: Log prices = Ln(Close(t)) Close(t)-Mean (Close(t)-Mean)/(StdDev) Ln(Close(t))-Mean Is there any other ways?...