15
votes
0answers
3k views

Algorithm to fit AR(1)/GARCH(1,1) model of log-returns

I am fitting numerically an AR(1)/GARCH(1,1) process to index and stock log-returns, $r_t=\log(P_t/P_{t-1})$, where $P_t$ is the price at time $t$, and thus far am not clear on where the observed log ...
1
vote
0answers
296 views

For pricing, what types of Exotic Options are suitable using Local Volatility Model / Stochastic Volatility Model?

I understand that Stochastic Vol Models should be used when Exotic Option payoff is Volatility dependent (such as Variance Swaps and Volatility Swaps). Stochastic Vol Models should also be used when ...
2
votes
2answers
519 views

Black-Scholes: Why the focus on volatility?

We know Black-Scholes is an imperfect model for options pricing. Why is so much of the analysis of its defects focused on implied volatility? The fact that IV varies for the same stock at the same ...
0
votes
1answer
86 views

Implementing Orders with Interval Estimates

There's a better chance that stock price reaches an interval, say between \$16.91 and \$16.97, then a single price, say \$16.95. Hence, I generate an interval for a target price, instead of a single ...
1
vote
0answers
308 views

pairs trading or long short strategy given volatility of the stocks

Suppose I have 2 stocks and the only thing I know about them is their volatility and that they cointegrate. Let's say vol of stock A is 25% and B is 20%. Will I be able to find a hedge ratio only ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Intuitive explanation of the Hansen-Jagannathan bound

The Hansen-Jagannathan bound states that the maximum Sharpe ratio of a portfolio can't exceed the ratio of the standard deviation of a stochastic discount factor to its mean. I more or less understand ...
-1
votes
1answer
106 views

Rate of Return Required on Buying Stocks with Loan

A bank gives a loan $L$ for $m$ months and the monthly interest rate is $i$. The bank requires monthly installments - which I calculate is $I = \frac{L}{m} + Li$. I use this loan to buy stocks....
0
votes
1answer
242 views

How to construct the binomial model for European option?

The annual interest rate is 5.3% and the annualized volatility of a non-dividend paying stock over the next six months will be 12.5% (annualized). i) Construct binomial trees of 5, 10 and 30 periods ...
2
votes
1answer
3k views

IMM rolls: Are there special business day conventions?

If a trade (lets say for example a 'simple' interest rate swap) is using IMM rolls (so the interest calculation periods start and end on IMM Wed dates), are there particular/special business day ...
4
votes
1answer
109 views

tail correlation during crisis

I am seeking a recommendation for an empirical paper on increased correlations of returns during the 2008 financial crisis, or 'tail correlation' during the crisis, if that is different, or whatever ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Relationship in Order Book between S&P500 and S&P500 Futures Contracts [duplicate]

What is the relationship between E-mini SPX futures and the SPX index. Besides the obvious, one is cash the other is a futures product. How does buying/selling in one product influence the other. If ...
0
votes
1answer
151 views

Difference between Ibovespa full and mini futures contract

What is the difference between the following two Brazilian futures contracts: The Ibovespa Futures Contract The Mini Ibovespa Futures Contract As far as I can tell, both are priced in Brazilian ...
25
votes
6answers
5k views

Machine Learning vs Regression and/or Why still use the latter?

I come from a different field (Machine learning/AI/data science), but aim to ask a philosophical question with the utmost respect: Why do quantitative financial analysts (analysts/traders/etc.) prefer ...
0
votes
4answers
1k views

compute sharpe ratio for options?

Calculating sharpe ratio for shares is a straight forward task: (average returns - risk free ) / standard deviation. However i remain baffled as to how to tackle the task for options, can someone ...
3
votes
0answers
176 views

Credit Rating vs Bond Yield

I am looking for some references on quantifying the dependence between credit rating and bond yield. I have some data (found some Bloomberg indices which give average yield based on credit rating), ...
0
votes
1answer
919 views

Determine state price vectors?

I have 3 states with two assets, stocks and bonds. The bond has a payoff of 1 in every state of the world. And the stock has a current price of $S_0 = 100$ and ...
3
votes
2answers
451 views

FIX/FAST packet analyzer

I have a network dump of market data in the FIX/FAST format (transported over UDP). Are there standard pieces of software (similar to Wireshark) that will parse and allow for inspection of the key-...
3
votes
2answers
646 views

How to compare volatility models?

What are the most popular ways to compare volatility models? Suppose I wanted to compare the forecasting accuracy of a GARCH(1,1) model with the historic 30 day volatility. What method should I use?
2
votes
2answers
404 views

Calculating Greeks in Covered Calls?

Just want to confirm whether Delta, Gamma, Theta, Vega will be calculated in the following way? Since we own 100 shares of stock while selling a call we need to subtract greek value from one? right? ...
3
votes
1answer
678 views

How to Analyze Interbank Lending Market?

I am currently trying to do a study in the interbank lending market, i plan to fit a DCC model to model them, these series below is taken from ...
1
vote
0answers
592 views

How to think about dollar volume in Eurodollar futures?

This is a very basic question: Computing the notional volume for futures contracts usually consists of something like: $$V_F = N \cdot P \cdot M \cdot FX$$ Where $V_F$ is the dollar volume of the ...
2
votes
1answer
209 views

put-call parity equation

I'm reading this book and I'm looking at page 4, and we are considering the case where $C_t - P_t - S_t$ is negative, which means that selling the call did not offset the cost of the stock and the put ...
1
vote
4answers
4k views

C# Broker API for FX Trading

I am looking for a broker who provides a free trading API for FX. The goal is to develop at-home algorithms in C# (possibly Qt) to run on a fake portfolio, and then later on real money with ...
1
vote
3answers
162 views

Greeks of self-financing portfolio

I would like to learn more about the Greeks of portfolios of options: In textbooks and websites, I commonly encounter the unqualified claim that "The Greek measure of a portfolio is the sum of the ...
-1
votes
1answer
844 views

What is a resting limit order? [closed]

What exactly is a resting limit order? I could not find a definition on Wikipedia or Google.
2
votes
2answers
633 views

Market making: buy on bid/sell on ask [closed]

In this thread, the top answer discusses: "buy on bid, sell on ask" as "market making" strategies. My question is: In layman ...
1
vote
0answers
272 views

Comparing Backtests of Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall

My goal is to test if ES (CVaR) empirically is a better risk measure than VaR for a set of given variables (assumed underlying distribution, confidence level, sample size) for different asset classes. ...
-2
votes
1answer
403 views

How could HFT help increase liquidity? [duplicate]

I have ready in several websites that HFT can help increase market liquidity, although this is contested in some articles. I am not familiar with the concept of market liquidity. What is the basis of ...
5
votes
5answers
5k views

Risk Neutral Probability

I read that an option prices is the expected value of the payout under the risk neutral probability. Intuitively why is the expectation taken with respect to risk neutral as opposed to the actual ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

What are the CMG-relevant banks according to Basel III?

I'm going through Basel III monitoring workbook and instruction. There's one row in "General Info -> A) General Bank Data -> 1) Reporting Data" part: "CMG-relevant: Yes/No?" I wonder what does this ...
0
votes
1answer
488 views

How to plot custom hourly data into R with quantmod?

I'm trying to get into R because for some personal project, I need R and quantmod to create OHCL charts for me. I'm stuck at the candleChart creation step, and I'm not sure I understand why. Using a '...
2
votes
1answer
153 views

evaluation of volatility models using loss functions

This question has two parts, What is the state of the art in an academic or public knowledge sense of volatility forecast model evaluation? Since there are many methods out in the wild, and do ...
9
votes
4answers
935 views

From Fourier Transforms to Option Values

I am trying to understand how Fourier transforms & Characteristics functions can be used to calculate option values. However, I am having difficulty following the process that is used in several ...
2
votes
0answers
263 views

What is the market impact of OTC trading ETFs?

I read an interesting statement here: "If an ETF’s market price tracks its NAV well, it is likely to have a small market impact. On the other hand, if the market price is more volatile than ...
3
votes
2answers
225 views

stock option strategies long vs short

What makes an option strategy long or short? I got the impression that if it is a net debit (you pay to open the strategy) it is classified 'long' (strangle, straddle) Then I learned about the call ...
2
votes
1answer
157 views

Fixed Income free research available online

As from the title, I would like to know where it is possible to find free research focused on fixed income markets' themes and topics, such as interest rates, credit risk related fundamentals, new ...
0
votes
1answer
1k views

Deriving the par-yield curve

Given for example 6 bond prices and their respective 6 cashflows over a time period of 6 years, I have managed to derive the zero-coupon yield curve using the bootstrap method. However, it got lost ...
2
votes
1answer
629 views

European Swaptions: does implied volatility of swap rates decreases both with start and tenor?

Does implied volatility of swap rates decreases both with start and tenor? Given a Swaption price and a discount curve I calculate the swap_rate from the curve, then I define implied volatility as ...
1
vote
0answers
71 views

Valuation of Mortgage Backed floating notes

Does anybody have experience in valuation of mortgage backed floating notes? I have task to value the 4 different MBS floating notes. I know that it should be done through montecarlo, refinancing ...
5
votes
6answers
629 views

Semi-strong efficiency and HFT

The semi-strong efficient market hypothesis states that In semi-strong-form efficiency, it is implied that share prices adjust to publicly available new information very rapidly and in an ...
4
votes
3answers
861 views

How do Order Management/Matching Systems match/allocate orders (and filled prices)?

I am working on an improvement of my company's order allocation system. We run a central Order Management System (OMS) but currently performance attribution from filled orders leaves room for ...
2
votes
1answer
740 views

IB API quotes and speed

The title says it all. I trade futures options exclusively and wanted to see if anyone had insight into the quote speedsrobustness coming into the API. I'm using the Excel DDE right now just building ...
8
votes
1answer
773 views

Fama-French 3-factor model: factors implying risk

The Fama-French three-factor risk model is given by $$ r=R_f+\beta_m(K_m-R_f) + \beta_s\cdot\mathit{SMB}+\beta_v\cdot\mathit{HML}+\alpha $$ where $r$ is the return, $R_f$ is the risk-free rate, $K_m$ ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Are two stocks with the same beta have a correlation of 1?

If two stocks have the same beta over same time period, does it mean they are 100% correlated over that time period? In a CAPM framework, a stock's beta is defined as $$\beta_1={\rm Cov} (R_1, M) / {...
1
vote
1answer
258 views

Why is the VIX computed that way?

The VIX as a clear definition as defined in this paper I am interested to know why they came up with this formula. I smell some reasonably complicated explanation here so any pointer to a paper ...
0
votes
1answer
124 views

VIX Calculations/Which product?

If the spot VIX is the implied vol off of the options on the SPX Index. But which tradable product would that be? Can’t you technically only buy ETF’s that track the SPX (SPY) or buy the ES futures. ...
5
votes
1answer
220 views

From $AR(p)$ to SDE

Let the Vasicek model to be $$\Delta r_{t}=k(\theta - r_{t-1})\Delta t+\sigma\Delta z_{t}$$ Due to the fact that $$\Delta r_{t}=r_{t}-r_{t-1}$$ if you let $\Delta t=1$, it is easy to see by ...
1
vote
2answers
6k views

How to normalize stock data

Please advise how can i normalize stock prices. Recently, I've been using such formulas: Log prices = Ln(Close(t)) Close(t)-Mean (Close(t)-Mean)/(StdDev) Ln(Close(t))-Mean Is there any other ways?...
2
votes
1answer
759 views

GARCH(1,1) prediction in R - Basic Questions

Background to question: Hi, I was trying to fit a GARCH(1,1) model to the variance of log returns of a series, and ARMA(0,0) for the mean. I was using the fGarch package to do this. The aim of the ...
2
votes
1answer
2k views

ADF test in R yielding perfect cointegration. How is this possible?

I am using the famous conintegrated pairs tutorial to just different stocks for cointegration. The adf.test yeilds perfect cointegration, which I feel must be incorrect. Here is why: When I run adf....

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