# All Questions

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### How are CDS prices calculated for financial institutions?

If you need to estimate the fair price of a credit default swap on a financial institution, can it be done? Typical structural models tend to break down for the complex debt and asset characteristics ...
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### Bond Convexity: Relationship between discrete and continuous interest rate

The interest rate risk of a bond price $P$ is measured by its Duration: $$D=-\frac{\frac{dP}{P}}{dr}$$ However, the explicit formula for the Duration given a function $P$ is different if $r$ is ...
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### Which rate have to be considered by using multiliteral netting?

I do have a netting structure consisting of four companies (A,B,C,D) and a netting center. The center also takes place in the netting process. The netting center uses the EUR as currency. Company A ...
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### Simulating Option Positions VaR with Monte Carlo in Python

I'm trying to calculate VaR for overall option positions. Currently I do a MC simulation for the underlying, and derive the theoretical value of the option from those theoretically. Then I calculate ...
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### Where can I find bonds time series?

I want to study dependence and correlation between bonds and CDS. I have already found a large CDS database of time series there: www.datagrapple.com I am looking for such a similar database (with an ...
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### Through the Cycle calibration of PD values

It is a known fact that default rates seem to exhibit cyclic behavior. Most probability of default models use one-year averages of default rates to calibrate the models. The one-year averages should ...
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### Are COFER unallocated resource changes meaningful?

I've been looking at the currency reserves (COFER) data on the IMF site: http://data.imf.org/?sk=E6A5F467-C14B-4AA8-9F6D-5A09EC4E62A4&ss=1408202647052 What caught my eye was the 5% drop in ...
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### What's the problem with simple EMA-crossover strategies?

I'm looking at charts of bitcoin here: https://bitcoinwisdom.com/markets/kraken/btceur with the option of displaying a short term as well as a long term EMA. It seems to me that if I were to buy ...
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### jump-resetted diffusion process

I'm working on a model in which there are two processes, $H$ and $L$, and the final variable to model starts as $H$ and then whenever a jump occurs, an instance of the $L$ processes starts and ...
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### Is the European call option delta an increasing function of the spot?

In the Black-Scholes' setting, the delta hedge ratio of a European call option is given by $N(d_1)$, which is an increasing function of the underlying equity spot $S_0$. Does this property hold ...
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### Portfolio Optimization with equal weight for assets selected

I have a data frame of bets, with 1 being a win and 0 being a loss. These bets are correlated so I cannot just pick the highest winning percentage. Goal is to get 2 optimizations, 1 for max sharpe ...
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### copulas and time series

Can anbody explain how Copulas are used to describe the dependency between, for example, the return on two different stocks? I understand how Copulas are the "glue" that binds the two marginals ...
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### simple game - fair value

Suppose a person A has the following game: there are 2 red balls, 2 green balls and 1 white ball in a bag you take 1 ball (don't put it again in the bag) and then a second ball if you take the white ...
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### Fourier transform covariance estimator

I am estimating realized variance and covariance by the estimator described in this paper, and relying on Fourier Transform. Now, as my data is one day of data in ultra high frequency, so that the ...
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### Good state of the art document about Algo Trading systems

I'm currently working on the requirements phase of a software project, and need get an overview of the industry regarding the tools available for Algo Trading. My first idea was to look for Gartner's ...
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### Match different option high frequency databases

I downloaded the “E-mini S&P 500 (Dollar) Options for 1/10/11” Top-of-Book (BBO) data. If you are interested you may download the data from the following link (approx. 80MB zipped and 1GB unzipped)...
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### Fair Price CDS Spread for a Bank

I have been using CreditGrades to calculate fair one year CDS spreads for firms. However, the authors of the model explicitly say that the model does not hold for banks or financial firms. If I need ...
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### Comparing Implied Vol. to Historical Vol. using intraday data

I'm interested in estimating what my profit/loss would be for continuously gamma scalping a delta hedged option over the course of one day, using historical intra-day price data. I found an equation ...
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### Adding Asset Weights To Cholesky Output - Monte Carlo in VBA

I am looking to create a Monte Carlo generator in Excel to plot correlated asset paths for a portfolio containing 1 to 10 assets. I have the correlation matrix for all 10 assets and have performed the ...
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### Formula behind pandas.Options() implied volatility

I noted that implied volatility (IV field) from pandas.Options class is very different (especially, for out of money options) than what I compute with Black-Scholes model. (risk free rate is pulled ...
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### Triangular Arbitrage with CFD

I cannot understand how the triangular arbitrage fits with CFD. Assuming there is an arbitrage opportunity: EUR/USD < USD/GBP * GBP/EUR If I do this strategy: 1 Long on EUR/USD at Ask price 1 ...
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### Motivation for hedging volatility using VIX ETNs

i wondered what the motivation for professional investors could be to engage in VIX ETNs. Would they even think about trading this kind of product? (they normally should have access to VIX options, ...
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### Scalar and vectorial sensitivities

In a recent discussion about the implementation of the calculation of derivative sensitivities, the notion 'scalar' and 'vectorial sensitivities' were used. I am not familiar with this notion and ...
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### “Spot rate is not observable” meaning

In Bruno Remillard's text, "Statistical Methods for Financial Engineering," he states the following on p 148 after giving the general form of a bond price $P(t,T)$ under Vasicek's model: Note that ...
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### Determining the investment strategy

I have the following problem: Consider the 5 year investment strategy and given the yearly portfolio returns $S_{t+1}/S_t$ and dividends $D_{t+1}$ paid at $t+1$ which are modeled as: \$\frac{S_{t+1}}{...
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### Construction of bond portfolio represented by a CDS-Index

Markit publishes investable basket CDS indices. These are indices intended to track the credit risk of a basket of issuers (e.g. in the case of iTraxx Europe Series 24 these are 125 names) in an ...
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### Turnbull & Wakeman Asian - not Edgeworth?

My understanding is that Turnbull & Wakeman derived an approximation formula for continous arithmetic Asian option using Edgeworth series by matching the first two moments. However, in the book ...
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### Application of time series analysis to Bitcoin prices

Various exchanges allow for the trading of Bitcoins. The price of Bitcoin was very volatile since the inception of the system, today it is 391.76 USD: I wonder whether time series analysis tools ...
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### state space for affine yield curve

i would like to reproduce in R the working paper " Affine free arbitrage class of Nelson Siegel term structure". The authors considering the equation of nelson siegel plus an adjustment term(C(t,T)) ...
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### affine arbitrage free class of nelson siegel yield curve

I'm studying statistics for finance at university. Last week i read the working paper on "The Affine Arbitrage-Free Class of Nelson-Siegel Term Structure Models". I would like to reproduce in R ...
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### Soft: Interpretation Fractional BM in finance

Suppose we are in the BS framework. If we replace the Brownian Motion with a more general fractional Brownian motion therein, how can it be interpreted? That is what is a financial interpretation of ...
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### How to add buy/sell market on a long/short Bollinger Bands graph in python?

I am using python, pandas, matplotlib to do the following: I have plotted some stock data ...
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### Commercial Vendors for Risk Management and Portfolio Optimization and Performance Attribution

So this question is directly about companies such as Axioma, Barra, Northfield, and etc. that provide risk management, portfolio optimization, and performance attribution related services. I want to ...
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### Returning historical yield rates for Mortgage Backed Securities in a Bloomberg Terminal?

Forgive me if this isn't the right place, and direct me to the correct place to post. I've been trying to figure out how to get the yield rates for Mortgage Backed Securities (MBS's) in the United ...