# All Questions

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### How do you calculate the asset drift rate in the Merton model? (used in N(-d2))

Can I replace it with the internal rentability rate? I only have the financial statements and some market data, but I can't find the expected returns anywhere. The goal is to calculate the probability ...
35 views

### Compare performance buy-and-hold strategies after stock-split

QUESTION: How should I analyze the statistical significance of the difference between two buy-and-hold strategies (or the relative performance) when the samples are not independent? Background: I ...
50 views

### Can Yahoo Finance API work for non-US markets?

I am trying to fetch ticker prices and historical prices for major Asian exchanges (HKSE, SGX etc). I am trying to use yahoo finance API, but it is not returning any data for even SingTel, which is a ...
81 views

### High frequency price forecast model ARMA GARCH or another?

Can you reccomend model for high frequency data (1 second and less) (returns and volatility forecasting)? Most papers use ARMA, GARCH etc in 1 minute and lower time frame. PROBLEM ARMA does not know ...
54 views

### After finding the pair, what next?

Had a question on how do I go about doing pairs trading. I have found some cointegrated stocks. Now the question is what next. From what I understand if two pairs are cointegrated, the distance ...
35 views

### Use of implied vol averages for expected underlying returns

When computing a single implied volatility value for a particular asset for use in cross sectional regression models, using daily end of day data. There are a few methodologies I've seen to used do ...
38 views

### Test for NonLinearity

I am doing a regression, returns of stocks(cross section of stock returns at a given time) against some fundamental factors. And look at the residuals to get a normalized view when trying to rank the ...
37 views

### Choosing an optimal dependent variable, regression/model fitting

When I select a certain target variable and model that with either linear regression or some other technique, say naive bayes, I hope to finally arrive at a model which has statistical significance, ...
232 views

### How can I convert Yahoo Ticker Symbols into ISIN Codes?

I have a list of all Yahoo Ticker Symbols and I want to convert them into ISIN Codes. I have been researching and found out that finance.yahoo in the US does not ...
27 views

### Multinomial Representation Theorem

In the context of pricing models, the Binomial Representation Theorem (BRT) tells us if we have a binomial price process $S$ that is a $\mathbb{Q}$-martingale (MG), and any other $\mathbb{Q}$-MG $M$, ...
46 views

### Regressing NYSE returns: Lagged intercept term & efficient market hypothesis

By performing the following OLS time series regression, $y_t$ = $\beta_0$ + $\beta_1$*$y_{t-1}$ + $\beta_0$*$y_{t-1}^2$ + $\epsilon$ I cannot reject the null hypothesis that b1=b2=0. However, ...
62 views

### Cointegration and variance of time series

Given that $X_t , Y_t$ are two cointegrated random processes, what can we say about the relationship between variance of the two increments $var(X_{t+h}-X_t)$ , $var(Y_{t+h}-Y_t)$ for a given ...
46 views

### Term Structure and short rates

If I have a term structure/yield curve given by: $$f(t, T) = f(0, T) + σ^2t(T − \frac{t}{2}) + σB_t$$ and want to find the short/spot rate $r_t$, is this simply: f(t,t) = f(0,t) + ...
23 views

### Pricing formulas for affine stochastic volatility jump-diffusion models

Does anyone know a reference where I can find the pricing formulas for vanilla calls in the affine stochastic volatility jump diffusion class of models such as SVJ and SVJJ? I am looking for ...
17 views

### Value of sequential mutually-exclusive options (A variant on the Secretary Problem)

How much should you offer a potential hire in a signing bonus? Imagine you are interviewing a list of candidates for a particular job. Each candidate has a "lifetime value", and probability of ...
32 views

### FX rollover swaps rates based on LIBOR rates

I am trying to calculate FX swaps overnight rates based on LIBOR rates Example: Libor rate for TRY crosses is 12.00 Libor rate for USD crosses is .19 How do we get to these number? USDTRY swaps ...
59 views

I am using the variance ratio test to check whether my sequence is mean reverting in that test there is a parameter n, How in general I choose this n? or what is the meaning of this parameter? ...
19 views

### Stochastic Optimal Control for ratios

Do you know any good papers on methods of Stochastic Optimal Control and Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman(HJB) for optimization of different ratios(Sharpe, M2, Sortino, Sterling, etc.)? Meaning that using ...
71 views

### Constant Conditional Correlation GARCH (1,1)

I am a beginner in R and my econometrics background is not very sound either. I want to build a constant conditional correlation GARCH (1,1) model in R and I found the function, the description of ...
22 views

### Annuities problem

First problem is like this: loan amount: 20,000,000.00 First six months: There is no payment but there are interest (grace period) Next six months: payment of 600,000.00 Since 13 month: payment of ...
27 views

### “For any random variable $X$, someone will be willing to buy and someone to sell a financial instrument, whose final payoff is $X$.”

we will assume that for any random variable $X:\Omega\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$, some investor will be willing to buy and some investor will be willing to sell a 'financial instrument' whose final ...
21 views

### Market risk calculation for Fixed income position

I have come across a somewhat strange formula (atleast to me) for Value at Risk calculation for a Bond position. This typical formula looks like below: PnL = Beta * "Some industry Credit spread" * ...
45 views

### Where do I find a good data model for CDS

Tasked with implementing software that deals with CDS's what is the best place to get the data fields required to properly represent one. Found the definition in FBML but seems somewhat excessive: ...
30 views

### comparison of speech signal processing and financial data

I have read that in speech signal processing analysis when voice is segmented in brief temporary segments the series segments transitions from being non stationary to stationary. My question is if ...
47 views

### Binomial function use in Bezier smoothing

I am using the Bezier method to smooth option volatility curves, which utilised the binomial distribution. Is someone able to clearly explain the interpretation of the binomial distribution in the ...
24 views

### Hypothetical actuary working with a life company

If you are an actuary with a life company, how would you show that your capital assessment complies with the rules of Solvency II (or related regulations) that stipulate the minimum of capital that ...
21 views

### use of recurrence quantification analysis for deterministic signal identification and classification

The recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) is a method of nonlinear data analysis which quantifies the number and duration of recurrences of a dynamical system presented by its state space ...
11 views

### How to calculate margin costs for a brokerage account?

I wanted to calculate total margin costs for an account that started with 5,000 cash and held for 6-months? I managed to get some sample rates online . My assumption is that I would borrow another ...
39 views

### Value-at-Risk - Currency Swap

Can someone explain to me how to calculate the VaR (delta-normal-method) for a Currency Swap? Thanks in advance. Regards Alexander
35 views

### Distribution of running maximums of a log normal process

I've been searching for quite some time and would appreciate any guidance! What I'm looking for is the distribution of running maximums for a log-normal process. If anyone is familiar with any ...
55 views

### Difference between Risk avoidance and Risk transfer

I was hoping some could explain the two terms namely, risk avoidance and risk transfer. Also, can a risk be avoided by transferring it?
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### Is it possible to offer promoters of a public company to acquire only their stake?

I am preparing a project report and I am interested in suggesting to buy the promoter stake (34%) in a public company. Will I get into trouble with the Securities Board (like SEC) if I do that instead ...
162 views

### Implied volatility from American options using python

I am currently trying to construct volatility surface from american option prices (using Cox-Ross-Rubinstein tree) in Python 2.7. Below you can find the code I came up with. Any corrections would be ...
50 views

### Calculating Asset Returns

The question pertains to a simple phenomenon. There is gold futures listed on Exchange A and Exchange B. Exchange A and Exchange B overlap times with A and B starting 8 hours later and A and B ...
19 views

### Why does SOR post the order to the primary market if it cannot find best price to execute?

If a Smart Order Router cannot find the best price for an order to execute, it would post this order to the primary market. I think this is because the primary market has more liquid and more active ...
25 views

### How to understand the upward trend of currency hedged euro/japan equity ETF

The quantitative easing implemented in Euro zone & in Japan has resulted in two outcomes Massive inflow of money into market that raised the stock index, and The weakening of euro/yen compared ...
109 views

### bond price formula in excel

I inherited a excel spreadsheet that has the following code to price a bond given coupon and current yield ...
32 views

### Daily PnL Calculation with currency conversion and multiple trades at the same day

In my project I increase and decrease my position many times during the day and leave a part of the position open. Through these many trades the position can flip from long to short. At the end of the ...
43 views

### How to compute the Coskewness Matrix in excel?

I'm triyng to compare two portfolio based on same sample of equities returns. And i want to know how to compute the coskewness matrix without using VBA, only in excel. Even a simple example with three ...
27 views

### scale alpha forecasts to align with covariance matrix

I have a set of monthly alpha forecasts and my covariance matrix has been annualized. I would like to do a mean variance optimization with a linear tcost penalty term. How do I rescale my alpha ...
51 views

### Which bond corresponds to which curve?

Bond X has a coupon Bond Y is a zero-coupon bond (Maturity 2 years) Bond Z is a zero-coupon bond (Maturity 10 years) The following graph is given: X-axis: yield curve, Y-axis: price Question: ...
35 views

### Invoice Discount pricing model

I was wondering whether there exist pricing models in particular for Invoice Discounting contracts and short-term financing solution where credit risk plays a major role. Specifically, assuming that ...
56 views

### How to compute short interest real-time?

Is there a way to compute real-time short interest (at least daily) using Bloomberg for a given stock?