# All Questions

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### Why is volume a totally independent variable from price?

In Martin Pring's book "Technical analysis explained", when talking about volume, he asserts that it is "a totally independent variable from price" Why is this?
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### Will I be chased for debt If I move out of UK? [migrated]

Hie, I am an International Student studying in the UK. I took some loans about £3000 while I was studying here. Since the government has abandoned PSW visa for graduates its likely that i am moving ...
68 views

### The source of “Cost of hedging” in the Black Scholes model

I am trying to get some intuition for the fact that a Black-Scholes price for an option is equal to the cost of replicating the option. Say the interest is 0. The option is obviously still worth ...
76 views

### Fractional Brownian motion

In Mandelbrot(1968)'s paper, the fractional brownian motion, denoted by $B_{H}(t,\omega)$,(t>0) is defined by $$B_{H}(0,\omega)=b_{0}$$ ...
51 views

### Why Variations of order higher than two vanish for Brownian motion?

Let $W_{t}$ be a Brownian Motion. Verify that variations of Brownian Motion of higher order, say, of order three, vanishes. I try to prove that ...
134 views

### Application of Control Theory in Quantitative Finance

I have recently completed an MSc in Control Systems from a top university. It seems to me that control theory must have an application within quantitative finance. I would like to apply my degree ...
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### Filtering my own orders from a UDP multicast market data feed

I am wondering what is the policy practiced by most exchanges from different market segments (FX, equities, futures, etc.) about the privacy implications of order identification in their market data ...
17 views

### Budget Constraint in Duffie's book

On Page 5 of Duffie's Dynamic Asset Pricing Theory, the budget-feasible set is defined as: $$X(q,e) = {e+D^T\theta \in R_+^s:\theta \in R^N, q\theta \leq 0}$$ Compared to Kerry Back's presentation of ...
61 views

### Building a personal computer for automated trading/analysis…what bottlenecks could I run into?

I've been trading forex and programming (I'm in college), but want to get into automated trading and analyzing data real-time to make decisions (and learning more about stats and math as a hobby). I ...
29 views

### Clean EOD global Equities data provider for backtesting investment strategies

I'm trying to find a good source for global equities for EOD data (historical and forward basis), currently using Bloomberg's back office data, but it is very hard to normalize it for corporate ...
29 views

### Use of implied vol averages for expected underlying returns

When computing a single implied volatility value for a particular asset for use in cross sectional regression models, using daily end of day data. There are a few methodologies I've seen to used do ...
15 views

### Analysis of Multiple Time Series and reaction to exogenous shocks [closed]

Real Life ProblemThis one is a tough one and some crowd sourcing seems like a good way to get some feedback. I am trying to determine the effect of Non-Farm Payroll surprises on a subsector of the ...
78 views

### A good way to calculate the realised daily volatility

Currently, I am confused about the calculation of realised daily volatility. Assume I have daily returns, for example, FTSE, then I need to estimate the daily realised volatility. I read some ...
24 views

### Test for NonLinearity

I am doing a regression, returns of stocks(cross section of stock returns at a given time) against some fundamental factors. And look at the residuals to get a normalized view when trying to rank the ...
16 views

### Choosing an optimal dependent variable, regression/model fitting

When I select a certain target variable and model that with either linear regression or some other technique, say naive bayes, I hope to finally arrive at a model which has statistical significance, ...
21 views

### Can everyone become RICH? [closed]

Who is RICH ? Is richness a REAL ? Is there a (Global / National) threshold value for prosperity ? Majority of people are neither Rich nor Poor. While there is a ...
85 views

### For $B_t$ a Brownian motion what is the probability that $B_1>0$ and $B_2<0$?

Let $B_t$ be a Brownian Motion. What's the probability that $B_1>0$ and $B_2<0$?
32 views

### Zero coupon bond pricing under Extended Hull & White

How do you price zero coupon bond in extended Hull & White model by solving the Bond Pricing Equation??
21 views

### Smoothed Rolling Correlation Matrix in Python with Yahoo Finance [closed]

Python beginner here, so I'm wondering if anyone can help me with this? I would like to... 1) Import 5 years of price data from Yahoo Finance from a csv list of stocks and (put it in a dataframe?) ...
26 views

### How can I convert Yahoo Ticker Symbols into ISIN Codes?

I have a list of all Yahoo Ticker Symbols and I want to convert them into ISIN Codes. I have been researching and found out that finance.yahoo in the US does not ...
18 views

### Multinomial Representation Theorem

In the context of pricing models, the Binomial Representation Theorem (BRT) tells us if we have a binomial price process $S$ that is a $\mathbb{Q}$-martingale (MG), and any other $\mathbb{Q}$-MG $M$, ...
19 views

### Leverage on ETF the same effect as on portfolio?

While we know that leveraged ETFs do decline in value to zero given infinity, can we also say the same with our portfolio value if we use leverage in our trading activity and seeing our portfolio ...
58 views

### Martingale Measure for Vasicek process

First, under Black-Scholes we have the usual method to transform the discounted asset price into a martingle: Let the asset price $S_t$ be goverend by $$dS_t = \mu S_t dt + \sigma S_t dW_t,$$ so ...
32 views

### How is the Order priority of an Iceberg order decided?

Typically, markets guarantee a FIFO order of priority of execution for various orders at the same price. I want to know does this hold true for Iceberg orders? for eg Order1 = Buy 100 Quantities @ 2 ...
77 views

### Pricing call option

Question: The price of a stock is 100. With equal probabilities, it either goes up to 130 or down to 70. What is the price of a 1 year call option with exercise price 100. Risk free rate is 5%. ...
56 views

### Volume or Volatility?

I've recently been given a project which came with some documentation. In this documentation is a bullet point that reads: Liquidity Risk in Equity, Credit and Vol I'm unsure as to whether vol is ...
21 views

### Why is TransactTime not required on ExecutionReports? [closed]

A couple of my brokers are not sending tag 60(TransactTime) on Canceled messages. What is the rule of thumb for determining cancel time when tag 60 is absent from a Canceled message? Canceled ...
48 views

### B-S Put Option Formula: Derivation using expected value under Q

I have been working on an old problem in one of my finance classes and, since no solution has been provided and I won't be able to contact my teacher anytime soon, I was hoping I could ask you guys to ...
39 views

### Regressing NYSE returns: Lagged intercept term & efficient market hypothesis

By performing the following OLS time series regression, $y_t$ = $\beta_0$ + $\beta_1$*$y_{t-1}$ + $\beta_0$*$y_{t-1}^2$ + $\epsilon$ I cannot reject the null hypothesis that b1=b2=0. However, ...
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### Evaluating a company with Project Financing loans using DCF method [closed]

While evaluating the whole entrerprise value of Falck Renewables ( http://www.4-traders.com/FALCK-RENEWABLES-SPA-96876/financials/ ) using DCF method I end up with a negative continuing value and ...
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### Cointegration and variance of time series

Given that $X_t , Y_t$ are two cointegrated random processes, what can we say about the relationship between variance of the two increments $var(X_{t+h}-X_t)$ , $var(Y_{t+h}-Y_t)$ for a given ...
43 views

### Systematic Views in Black-Litterman?

Are there any literature on selecting systematic views for Black-Litterman along with methods to specify the uncertainty parameter? For example, rather than specifying a portfolio manager's subective ...
42 views

### Forex trading scenarios - calculating units

I'm trying to build an automated forex trading system and I'm trying to understand how to calculate the number of units I should specify for each trade in different scenarios. Say for example I have ...
82 views

### S&P 500 total return since 1956

I'm looking for monthly data of the S&P 500 total return since 1956. I have looked into Bloomberg and Datastream, but it looks like there are data only from 1988.
61 views

### Short Volatility [closed]

Being net short options is an obvious case of being short volatility. But what other investments are "functionally" short volatility? Is long equities long or short volatility? Is short Apple long or ...
30 views

### Portfolio Selection formulation

I was just wondering why in http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1601412 on page 22, the constraint (48) is a strict equality for the minimum variance formulation. Whereas in a different ...
121 views

### Why is the volatility smile important

One thing I can't understand clearly is why there is so much focus on the volatility smile. Given my knowledge of the Black and Scholes model, this is what I get: People use the volatility smile as a ...
108 views

### Direct use of implied volatility

I am not sure to understand exactly the direct use of implied volatility. Let's take an example: if an instrument has a daily volatility of $\sigma$, there is a 68% probability that its value will be ...
52 views

### remove seasonality in future contracts

very new to commodities. I have raw agriculture future data, and I need to remove the seasonality (de-seasonalize) from the data, what is the general approach ? Thanks for the help!
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### When would dedicated portfolios do better than 'immunized' portfolios?

We just learned about cash-matching through dedicated portfolios (using risk free bonds) in my class that concerned mathematical programming. However, in an aside one of the notes said: It should be ...
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### Calculating units in a cross currency short trade

If I have a forex account with a broker and a balance of 100 USD, and I'd like to short EUR/JPY, how many units can I short? How is this calculated? Which currency pair do I use to translate between ...
63 views

### Black Scholes Model Replicating Strategy Delta Hedged Exam Question

A share is currently priced at 640p. A writer of 100,000 units of a one year European put option with an exercise price of 630p has delta-hedged the option with a portfolio which holds cash and is ...
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### Pricing digital options in discrete time

I am stuck in this exercise from my textbook: Consider a one-period market model with $N+1$ assets: a bond, a stock and $N-1$ call options. The prices of the bond are $B_0=1$ and $B_1 = 1+r$, ...
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### Intuitive Reasoning for Using Risk-Neutral Measure

Although we thoroughly covered risk-neutral pricing in university I never fully understood it in the context of continuous-time processes. But first of all, lets consider a discrete time example: ...