# All Questions

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### Executions deep in the Limit Order Book?

I have some Level III (message level) data for equities and I have found several cases in which I register the execution of a Limit Order at a price "worse" than the best bid or ask. For example, ...
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### Interpreting Johansen co integration test

I am a little new to econometrics. Please pardon me for this silly question. I was running a Johansen cointegration test on two time series using the econometrics toolbox provided by James LeSage for ...
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### Foreign exchange - Dealer spreads and order size

Is it true that in foreign exchange markets, dealer spreads are lower for smaller order and increases for larger orders? This seems counter-intuitive when compared to other markets where dealer ...
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### Seeking Advice for Exam FM regarding Derivatives Markets

I am taking Exam FM in a week and I was wondering if I could get any advice from people who have recently passed this exam. How much of the derivatives markets question did show up? I am using the ...
Assume the observed call option prices $C(K_i,T_i)$ for $i = 1,\dots,N$ are disturbed by some unknown measurement noise $\epsilon$. What would an appropriate covariance structure be for $\epsilon$? ...