# All Questions

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### GARCH model why we take assumption that returns arei.i.d. random variable? [closed]

In GARCH model why we take assumption that returns are i.i.d.?how can we explain it to a layman?
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### What information should be delivered to the client so they have enough information to manage their exchange rate risks? [closed]

The client can be a CFO or CEO. The information can indicators, charts, graphs, statistics, ratios, etc. I know the VaR is one of them.
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### KMV-Merton Probabilties of Default vs Moody's EDF

Moody's used to publish probability of default estimates from their Moody's EDF model, but they have temporarily discontinued it. I understand that the Moody's EDF model is closely based on the Merton ...
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### put call parity for futures options derivation in Hull

In Hull, the following derivation of PCP for futures options: What confuses me is that it is stated that the payoff of the long futures is $F_t-F_0$. The footnote states: the analysis assumes that ...
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### the cash flows behind closing out futures positions

I always get confused about the cashflows occurring when a futures position is closed out. For example, say it is January and I enter into a long December Futures position with a futures price F(jan). ...
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### How to calculate conversion parity for convertible bond?

Can someone explain how can I calculate the parity of this convertible bond? I know the formula is Current price of common stock x Conversion Ratio, but it doesn't seem to be right in this picture.
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### Initial holdings of bonds with delta hedging (Black Scholes model)

Consider the Black Scholes model so $$dS_t = \mu S_t dt + \sigma S_t dW_t, \;\;\; dB_t = rB_t dt$$ I want to delta hedge an European call option with strike price $K$ and strike time $T$. It is known ...
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### Execution quality for illiquid securities

The SEC's execution quality statistics measurements (Rule 605) arguably does a poor job at measuring the execution quality of ...
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### can an fx forward price simply be divided into 1 to quote the inverse?

Qu 1. Say I ask for EURUSD 1 week and get prices: 1.120986 / 1.120216 Does that mean to price USDEUR 1 week I can divide 1 / 1.120216 and 1 / 1.120986 and get rates: 0.8921 / 0.8927 Or is that ...
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### Callable bond price sensitivity to Hull-White volatility changes

I'm using classic Hull-White model for short term interest rate dynamic: $$dr(t)=[\theta(t)-\alpha(t)r(t)]dt+\sigma(t)dW(t)$$ (Notation is quite intuitive, anyway I am using the same as Wikipedia ...
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### Raw (level) variable is significant while log return is not significant

I know this might be an "amateur" question, but I am pretty surprised to see the following fact: I have a dependent variable, let's call it Y. Then I have an independent variable, let's call it X. ...
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### Tests for Mean Reversion in a Portfolio Rebalancing

On a single time series one can run a Dickey-Fuller test to determine if the asset is mean reverting or at least has been mean reverting during your sample. Is there a way to test for mean-reversion ...
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### Implied rate of a bond question

A 2 year bond, yield 6%. A 1 year bond, yield 4%. What's the implied rate for the bond that starts one year from now?
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### Need help understanding basics of cash flow engineering

I'm studying Financial Engineering, a subject I'm completely new to. I'm using Principles of Financial Engineering 3rd Edition and trying to solve the exercises ...
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### Kurtosis in asset logarithmic returns

Assets such as stocks usually display kurtosis in their logarithmic returns. However, their logarithmic returns in a time interval $n$ are the sum of smaller logarithmic returns in $1/n$ time ...
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### Seeming arbitrage in excess reserves

In the US banks are required to store 10% of their deposits in cash in the form of Fed Funds. Due to misbalance of demand and supply, some banks borrow such cash from others; the volume averaged ...
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### Vendor data aggregation for Options on Futures

Have anyone managed to automate data consolidation between Reuters and Bloomberg for Options on Futures? Are there any common attributes that these vendors share in this particular asset class that ...