3
votes
1answer
191 views

Pair trading based on cointegration - equity line

I'm preparing a project at my Uni where I have to make a simple pair trading strategy using cointegration between two stocks. I'm stuck on the equity line calculation. I have prepared opening and ...
4
votes
1answer
170 views

Self-Frontrunning Arbitrage

If I have a large order to fill, shouldn't I always buy a derivative in the same direction to profit from the market impact? E.g. I sell 1 million shares and so I buy a put, which will hence almost ...
0
votes
1answer
67 views

Interpreting and scaling of Realized Variance with sample data

I have some question about realized variance(RV) and I have some sample prices below to work with. You can run the R code below to build a vector of log returns. Three are 78 5-minute buckets in a ...
3
votes
1answer
178 views

Issue with OLS Regression for Nelson Siegel Svensson parameters

I have been working on getting input parameters to the Non-Linear Optimization which gives the Nelson Siegel Svensson model parameters and am carrying out the OLS regression as described in this ...
0
votes
1answer
210 views

What market making strategies are often used nowadays ?

I am doing a survey of market making strategies, what's the popular market making strategies?
2
votes
1answer
70 views

Forward parity in fixed income

In stock and index we have a beautiful forward-spot parity $$ F(t,T) = S(t)\cdot B(t,T) \tag{1} $$ which tells us that to price a forward contract at time $t$ with expiry $T$ we can just borrow ...
0
votes
0answers
33 views

Is there a considered floor for variation the 1st principal component must explain?

I am wondering if there is a considered floor to the percentage variation the 1st principal component must explain in general for PCA - ie. any lower and it is not worth doing PCA at all? Is the floor ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Influencing factors on credit

There was the following question on an exam: Which factors are influencing the effective interest rate of a credit? loan amount fees interest rate running time I would have said ...
2
votes
0answers
51 views

Fed Funds Rate: longer maturities

FFR published by Fed Bank of NY is the average rate US banks charge each other for the overnight loans of their reserves required by the Fed regulations. Since Fed acts similar to a clearing house ...
2
votes
1answer
50 views

Likelihood of a caplet ending in the money

with what likelihood would one expect an ATM caplet to end up in the money? Just as a very rough guess, from real world experience. When I consider N(d2) from the Black formula, for spot = strike = 4%...
1
vote
2answers
336 views

Why is the value of debt modeled as a short put option in Merton's model?

Can someone give me an intuitive understanding of why the Merton model models the value of the debt from the lender's point of view as a short put with a risk free bond? I'm not well versed in this ...
4
votes
1answer
76 views

compute technical indicators from candle data

i have a rookie question but can't find the answer anywhere so..what is the right way to compute a simple moving average when you have an array of (open,close,low,high) tuples ? From what i saw so ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Given cash flows, what is the interest rate of the following contract? [closed]

I am presented with an investment opportunity where I am given #481,000 on day 1. Thereafter, every 10 days, I am required to give back #50,000 every for 100 days (10 * 50000 = 500000). How do I ...
2
votes
0answers
82 views

Ledoit-Wolf portfolio weights calculation

I am trying to implement the Ledoit-Wolf minimum variance portfolio strategy on a real-world stock dataset. ...
3
votes
1answer
159 views

Derivation using Ito's Lemma of price process

Define $q(t)$ as the log price minus a linear trend $$ q(t) = \ln P(t) - \mu t $$ Assume the log price process = Equation 1: $$ dq(t) = - \Theta q(t) dt + \sigma dW(t) $$ Can you show that the ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Expected Shortfall alternative formulation

Define: $$q_\alpha(F_L)=F^{\leftarrow}(\alpha)=\inf\lbrace{x\in \mathbb{R}\mid F_L(x)\geq \alpha\rbrace}=VaR_\alpha(L)$$ I want to prove that: $$ES_\alpha = \frac{1}{1-\alpha}\mathbb{E}[\mathbb{1}_{...
0
votes
2answers
281 views

Difference between Closing Price, Last traded price and Settlement Price for option contracts?

What is the difference between Closing price, Last traded price and settlement price ? I got the difference between Closing Price and Settlement price from previous post : The difference between ...
0
votes
1answer
48 views

Constructing NS-Svensson parameters with zero coupon AND coupon bonds

I am in the process of calculating sovereign zero coupon yield curves using the NS-Svensson parameter for a number of countries. Due to data constraints, I would like to use the information from price ...
0
votes
0answers
50 views

Estimate volatility in forecast

I have a model with a rolling forecast. In each time step $t$, I predict the price for the next periods, e.g. $\hat{p}(t, t+1)$ and $\hat{p}(t, t+2)$. If I start in $t=0$ and arrive at $t=2$, I ...
1
vote
1answer
107 views

Delta hedging cost of exotic options?

I'm simulating dynamic delta hedging for up-and-out call option. For plain vanilla call options, I heard that the option price is the expected value of the accumulated delta hedging cost. Does it also ...
0
votes
0answers
56 views

calibration of Gaussian two factor short rate model

I am trying to calibrate the gaussian two factor short rate model whose dynamics is given by r(t)=x(t)+y(t)+phi(t) Now to calibrate the model to term structure ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Merton Jump Diffusion Model: Influence of lambda

I use Monte Carlo to simulate sample paths of Merton's jump diffusin model. By plotting a histogram of the log returns and using kerneldensity to approximate the density function I try to look at the ...
0
votes
1answer
101 views

How difficult/easy it is to migrate from CME FAST to CME MDP3.0?

Has anyone gone through this migration? Just wanted to have an idea of the amount of effort required.
2
votes
1answer
100 views

Garch models and assumption of stationarity ?

I found big inconsistency in the GARCH models and their underlying assumption of stationarity. GARCH models require that data must be stationary, where stationary means both mean and variance are ...
2
votes
1answer
124 views

Orthogonal Regression/PCA

I am doing orthogonal regression. My X matrix consists of returns on a broad market index, value index, growth index, a few sectors,.....(my Y is the returns on an equity fund) I am regressing the Y ...
4
votes
1answer
91 views

Tools/R-code to create gain/loss-asymmetry plots

The gain/loss asymmetry is a well known stylized fact: It basically states that real financial time series take longer for going up than going down. To detect it a heavy statistical machinery is ...
2
votes
1answer
107 views

FORECASTING Model AR(1) in an Autoregressive Form The Pi´s Parameters

Ive been implementing a little exercise to obtain the first 2 forecasting points of an AR(1) process. And i want to have the forecasting ponts using the three forms: Im folowing this pdf http://www.le....
1
vote
2answers
81 views

how to convert notional to nominal of bond future to ctd bond

I want to know if you can easily convert a notional of a bond futures contract into the nominal of the ctd bond if you have the conversion factor. For example you have 1000 notional of a futures ...
6
votes
2answers
88 views

Gain/loss-asymmetry in artificial financial markets?

The gain/loss asymmetry is a well known stylized fact: It basically states that real financial time series take longer for going up than going down. My question Are you aware of any artificial ...
4
votes
2answers
255 views

Why $N(d_1)$ and $N(d_2)$ are different in Black & Scholes

I'm struggling to understand the meaning of $d_1$ and $d_2$ in Black & Scholes formula and why they're different from each other. As per the formula, $$C = SN(d_1) - e^{-rT}XN(d_2)$$ which ...
2
votes
3answers
91 views

Impact of big order on price

What is known about the question: If someone buys or sells a huge amount of some asset how the price would change ? Of course, it depends on the kind of assets and other context. My main interest is ...
6
votes
1answer
147 views

How to perform risk budgeting for non-linear portfolios?

I am using this question to compute optimal weights following a risk budgeting approach. The problem is I am using non-linear portfolios (options,equity,fixed income,fx). What I am looking for is ...
4
votes
1answer
399 views

Greeks of a swaption using Brigo

I struggeling with calculating the delta of a swaption. In the interest rate case I usually mess around with the multiple cash flows over time so that the discounting is more complex than in the ...
1
vote
1answer
73 views

Connection between implied volatily and implied probability

I am reading some lecture notes about Black-Scholes (BS) option pricing. Since the BS-formula is not supported by observed data because of the dependence of the implied volatility on the strik and ...
1
vote
3answers
621 views

How to learn QuantLib-python at first?

In my project, I have to get the delta of up and out call option (with vol surface). I found out that QuantLib might help me on that. Since my main language is python and I don't know well about C++, ...
0
votes
2answers
169 views

Legitimate input parameters for Nelson Siegel Svensson model

I had previously asked this question and have come to better understand the answer with regards to setting the input parameters for the Non-Linear Optimization problem that provides the NSS parameters....
4
votes
1answer
241 views

Rebalancing portfolio weights

I have a matrix of returns and weights for every time period. ...
0
votes
1answer
34 views

Compound Discounting(?)

I am a programmer interning at a small contract furniture company. This company receives multiple discounts from the manufacturers, and I am trying to calculate the end discount. For example, the ...
1
vote
1answer
53 views

Understanding portfolio weights and purchasing stock in modern portfolio theory

Recently I've been learning about the markowitz algorithm. It's pretty interesting, but I'm curious how we apply this in practice. Lets say I have some optimal portfolio: $R_p = x_aR_a + x_bR_b$ ...
2
votes
1answer
92 views

About the boundary conditions of the Black-Scholes-Merton PDE

I have a question about the solution of the Black-Scholes PDE for the European call option when I read the book Stochastic Calculus for Finance II of Steven E.Shreve. Let $c(t,x)$ be the value of the ...
0
votes
1answer
118 views

Calculating discount factors using Nelson Siegel Svensson model

I am trying to understand how to calculate the discount factors $disc(TTM)$ mentioned on Page 9 of this pdf. When I'm calculating the discount factors, mentioned each bond has its own cash flow and ...
1
vote
0answers
183 views

Carry Trade vs synthetic Carry Trade using forward contracts

When it comes to foreign exchange carry trade strategy, the definition is straightforward: an investor borrows 1 USD in the US (low interest country) and invests that $1 to AU (high interest country). ...
3
votes
1answer
102 views

Comparing Equity Funds

I am trying to compare 2 equity funds, I have 10Y of monthly returns (no knowledge of their share allocations) - and their index benchmark returns. They are both Value managers but I am not looking ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

Transforming coupon bond returns to ZC bond returns

I am interested in aggregated Amihud ratios measures over bond groups. For a large panel data set with daily bond prices and volumes I have calculated already Amihud ratios per ISIN/day. Naive ...
3
votes
0answers
75 views

why many option contract price less than minimum boundary price?

I downloaded data from NSE(National Stock Exchange) website regarding closing price of European Call Option written on Index. From standard textbook, I read that option contract must satisfy $C(t) \...
2
votes
0answers
57 views

soft vs hard contraints in portfolio optimizations

Consider two sample portfolio optimizations: Optimization 1: $\begin{matrix} \\ \min \frac{1}{2} w'\Sigma w \\ w'\mu = r \\ Aw = 0 \\ w_l \le w \le w_u \end{matrix}$ Optimization 2: $\begin{matrix} ...
0
votes
3answers
126 views

To currency hedge or not to currency hedge (ETFs)?

When is it preferable to use a currency hedged ETF over a none currency hedged ETF? There has been studies which have shown over the longer term currency hedging does not make a difference. "...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

Term to Maturity when calculating discount function

I am just trying to understand what TTM (Term to Maturity) means in Page 8 of this PDF when calculating the discount function. Is it just the vector representing the difference between the time to ...
5
votes
4answers
454 views

Understanding $N(d_1)$ and how to use the stock itself as the numeraire?

Assume the stock price follows a geometric Brownian motion Then in Black-Scholes pricing model, $N(d_2)$ is the risk-neutral probability that the option expires in-the-money. However, it is said that $...
0
votes
2answers
325 views

What‘s the definition of static arbitrage?

Could someone give the strict definition of static arbitrage? I know what the arbitrage means but have no idea about the term "Static". Thanks in advance!

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