# All Questions

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I am looking for any reference where the following problem was addressed: given the list of trades of a trader teach an AI to replicate that trader's strategy. There are several well-known results ...
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### Changing timezones with historic forex data (Interactive Brokers API IBPy)

I would like to be able to change the timezone for my requests to the IB API, how can I do this? I am writing in Python, and thus use the IBPy wrapper found here. How to reproduce the problem: ...
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### What is the unconditional variance for a GARCH model?

I want to use a Matlab script to calculate Heston Nandi GARCH prices. I found an appropriate script online and it asks for the "unconditional variance" as an input. How do I calculate the appropriate ...
28 views

### Calibration of intensity model

I could use some advice on calibration of stochastic intensity models. I am thinking that the CIR model is most suitable, as it can not take negative values (when feller condition is satisfied). I ...
36 views

### Volatility Parametrization Libor Market Model - Underspecified Model?

Does the volatility parametrization that I have chosen give an underspecified model? Which volatility parametrization in the Libor Market Model would suit the best for the particular case described ...
41 views

### How to understand quadratic finance or practice of Value-at -Risk(VaR)

We define the following notions for a jointly normally distributed random vector $P=(P_1,...,P_n)$ with f the density function. $$\mu=\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}(x_i-\mu_i)f_i(x_i)dx_i$$ \sigma^2_{ij}=...
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### US Rule versus Actuarial Method for calculating interest

I'm trying to understand the difference between the actuarial method and the U.S. Rule for calculating interest. I think the difference is that the actuarial rule adds unpaid interest to the principal ...
64 views

### Risk neutral probability and forecasting

When our goal is pricing of derivative products we, due to no arbitrage conditions, have to use the risk neutral probability. In other side if we have risk management purpose we have to use the “...
34 views

### How to apply Kelly criterion to a portfolio made by a stock plus a option?

First of all, assuming a Gaussian, Markowitz, well behaved world. Extensions for non-well behaved world will be welcomed. I know that by a portfolio made by only by one stock (and a risk free bond) I ...
26 views

### How to request current Interactive Broker positions using VBnet/Activex and the API?

I'm trying to use the reqPositions() method but it doesn't have an event handler associated with it that it references in the API.
46 views

### Implied volatility

I have a question about calculating the implied vol. Assuming the implied vol that a option will expire in 1 day is $\sigma_1$, and the implied vol that the option will expire in 2 days is $\sigma_2$. ...
33 views

### Arrow-Debreu Equilibrium Pricing

I have this problem in asset pricing that I don't know how to solve. Here it is: Consider an economy with a complete set of Securities and $N$ states of the world Tomorrow. Assume that there are two ...
76 views

### Problems with a Black-Scholes modified equation

I haven't really studied much financial mathematics until about 2 months ago so I'm quite new to this stuff, so I'm sorry if this is a trivial question. At the moment I'm trying to work out what the ...
29 views

### Ledoit-Wolf, expected order of optimal shrinkage intensity

I have a question regarding the optimal shrinkage intensity derived in the Ledoit-Wolf method. Specifically, I'm referring to their version concerned with the target defined as the single index factor ...
51 views

### serial correlation, Fama MacBeth (1973) procedure incorporating momentum

I have a question regarding the use of the Fama-MacBeth (1973) procedure on panel data. I am investigating the cross sectional determinants of expected REIT return following the procedure from: Chui, ...
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### Using Market Prices of Bonds to Model the Discount Curve with a Polynomial (Math + R)

I have a small program I'm building to interpolate the discount curve from a portfolio of benchmark bonds. If anyone has any guesses as to whether it's my process, or my code that's messed up I would ...
30 views

### Using Kendall rank correlation to construct a covariance matrix?

I am wondering if it's mathematically 'correct' to employ a correlation matrix based on Kendall-correlation when constructing a covariance matrix? I.e., is it wrong to multiply standard deviations of ...
47 views

### Capital increase: which stock price to use as input to Black-Scholes formula?

For an exercise we have to calculate the theoretical value of a scrip / preferential right on its issue day (23 April) in the context of a capital increase. The scrips are issued on 23 April. The ...
28 views

### Heston Model Maximum Return Distribution

What is the joint probability distribution of the maximum of the return between time $0$ and $t$ and the return at $t$, for the Heston model, when the return drift is $0$ and the correlation between ...
65 views

### Johansen cointegration test interpretation in R

I want to test my time series for cointegration using the Johansen test in R. I got the following result and so I know now that at least 5 out of 9 of my time series are cointegrated. My question is, ...
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### Leverage and Drawdown

What are the risks of deleveraging a leveraged long/short equity portfolio when going into a drawdown at certain drawdown stops, like deleveraging by 30% when breaching a -5% drawdown, deleveraging a ...
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### In May of 2005, several large hedge funds had speculative positions in CDO tranches

These hedge funds were forced into bankruptcy. This was due to: the correct answer is: Long Mezzanine and Short Equity Tranche position when correlation of Mezzanine tranche decreased. Can anyone ...
64 views

### VAR models for log-returns?

I am wondering if Vector Autoregression (and other autoregressive models) is a sound modelling for the daily (not high-frequency!) log-returns of time series from liquid financial markets. One can ...
117 views

### How to fit a VAR + GARCH in R

I should create a VAR model with Garch error in R but i don't know how to do it and which package to use. The Vector Autoregressive model (or VECM) should also have covariates in it. Then I should ...
18 views

### Decision criteria after seasonal drop (GAME)

I'm playing a game in which you can buy and sell items (it's an mmorpg). Now, after certain events, there is a huge drop in the price of certain items (there is a seasonal double experience weekend in ...
38 views

### Can I use these rates for ACT/360 discounting?

I have calculated forward rates like this: $r_{t_1,t_2} = \left(\frac{(1+r_2)^{d_2}}{(1+r_1)^{d_1}}\right)^{\frac{1}{d_2-d_1}} - 1$ I want to find the discount factors for these forward, with ACT/...
32 views

### What is a standard model of convergence when looking at negative stub values?

I am trying to understand whether or not there is a standard model of convergence in the arbitrage scenario of negative stub models, i.e. when the market value of a company is valued less than its ...
37 views

### Gaussian Copula with t margins

I am trying to fit a Gaussian Copula with t margins to my data (log returns of two stocks). It has already worked for a Gaussian Copula with normal margins with: normcopula_dist = mvdc(copula=...
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### Literature to Learn about Different Instruments

What is a good source of literature to learn about the specifics of various instruments that are traded? For example, suppose I wanted to know more about MBS's, i.e. how exactly they are securitized, ...
99 views

### Equity Index Announcement Data

Does anyone know of a data source that provides announcements of future index events (adds/drops/re-balances), specifically for equity indexes? I know these are mostly available somewhere on each ...
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### Subclass Tracking Error

I am currently doing a master program project regarding tracking errors. My assignment is to evaluate following question: How to find out the correlation structure of the passive (=second order/sub-...
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### Liquidity Adjusted Asset Pricing Model

I have a data set with 4000 companies and I have calculated a liquidity measure of each of the company in the dataset as Where, Turnover is the monthly average ratio of daily volume to shares ...
59 views

### Dual discounted forward curve

I was wondering how to calculate the forward rates based on OIS discounting for the half year terms. I know how to do this for the full year terms -> just making sure that the two legs are equal to ...
108 views

### Daily Hurst Exponent

I am trying to estimate daily Hurst exponent values of a stock returns (e.g. for each day to have also Hurst exponent - something like that: https://www.quandl.com/data/PE/CKEC_HURST-Hurst-Exponent-of-...
34 views

### European call option delta and maximum principle

From comments, the maximum principle for parabolic PDE can be used to show that the European call option delta cannot be greater than 1. I am looking forward to such derivations.
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### Data source for a corporate bond yield curve?

Yield curves are a valuable tool for economic analysis. It is particularly interesting to analyse the difference between Government Debt yields and Corporate Debt yields (credit spreads). This gives ...
81 views

### Example of optimal delta hedging in G. Barles, H.M. Soner option pricing paper

There is a paper Option pricing with transaction costs and a nonlinear black-scholes equation by Guy Barles and Halil Mete Soner. And there is a section about optimal (delta) hedging, which I do not ...
32 views

### Significance testing of average returns from Sharpe ratio

I'm aware that one way to do significance testing on a strategy is based on the sampling distribution of its Sharpe (see, e.g., Lo, 2002 and Opdyke, 2008). However, it appears to me that there's ...
115 views

### Behaviour of out of sample efficient frontier

I am comparing the efficient frontier of a set of portfolios that are in and out of sample. The first period is from 1991-01-03 until 1992-10-03 and the second one from 1992-10-03 until 1994-03-03. I ...
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### “Economic” Variables in Short Rate Models

Hull (9 ed.) states on p 707, "Equilibrium models usually start with assumptions about economic variables and derive a process for the short rate..." He then states the usual short rate models ...
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### OHLC Covarianc Estimation

Is there an R package which can estimate a covariance matrix using OHLC (Open/High/Low/Close) share prices for upwards of 40 shares using the Yang & Zhang method using daily data? I google ...
96 views

### What is the correct hedging strategy using futures?

In practice, even without maturity and underlying mismatch, hedging using futures does not always require a one-to-one hedge ratio. Tailing factor needs to be considered. Suppose the current spot ...
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### Does the Binomial Pricing Model require a no-arbitrage assumption?

In a binomial option model, if we take the uptick as 6%, downtick as 5% (assume equally probable), and RFR of 6% (continuous compounding), then we have a violation of $0 < d < 1 + r < u$. ...
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### How does risk attitude influence trading? (Bibliography seeking)

I wonder how risk-averse or risk-seeking investors behave in a stock market. Is there any bibliography that deals with that? For example, suppose that we have a risk-averse investor that buys a ...
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### Working Capital Change vs. Working Capital Changes-Total

I am working with compustat data and I can't figure out difference between 2 columns: Working Capital Changes - Total Working Capital Change / Other / Increase/(Decrease) For the same date columns ...