# All Questions

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### How to simulate a Geometric Binomial Process with state/tie dependent increments?

I want to simulate a geometric binomial process with state/time dependent increments. So the model is given by \begin{align}R_t=\frac{X_t}{X_{t-1}}\end{align} \begin{align}P(R_t=u)=p(X_{t-1},t) ...
83 views

### Portfolio insurance with a coherent risk measure (CVaR)

I would like to analysis of portfolio insurance under a coherent risk-measure method (CVaR), How can I achieve that? Is there a way to turn the problem into a linear programming problem? or to ...
93 views

### What does it mean to adjust for short-run liquidity in finding risk-free rate of return

Risk-free rate of return should equal the expected long-run growth rate of the economy with an adjustment for short-run liquidity. What is meant by the last phrase, "adjustment for short-run ...
687 views

### Philips-Ouliaris test for cointegration

I'm trying to implement cointegration tests using the R urca package. I've figured out the Johansen test (ca.jo), but I'm having trouble with the Philips-Ouliaris test (ca.po). I have two questions: ...
66 views

### Is there an appropriate sequence to tests during model diagnosis?

How should one order (sequence) the following tests? Stationarity test Johansen cointegration test Normality/Histogram test Autocorrelation test Heteroskedasticity test Multicollinearity test ...
97 views

### Benchmarking risk

Given the portfolio return $R$ and the benchmark return $B$, I want to define a risk indicator, measuring the ability to beat the benchmark ($R>B$), given the downside risk taken; the latter not ...
711 views

### How to correctly construct a value- and equally weighted portfolio consisting of property-types?

A problem of which I couldn’t find the answer on the forum is about the construction of equally-weighted and value-weighted portfolio. I want to compute the equally-weighted property-type portfolio ...
138 views

### What does negative gamma mean in APGARCH model?

I got a gamma of -0.1321677. ...
572 views

### Does the geometric Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process have stationary variance?

I know that the long run variance of the standard OU process is $\lim_{s\rightarrow \infty}\mbox{Var}(P_{t+s}|P_t) = \frac{\sigma^2}{2\theta}$ I'm using the geometric version of the process. I ...
217 views

### EUR/PLN and EUR/USD delta-term-vol surface quoting convension

does anyone know for sure what is the FX market convension to quote delta-term pairs for EUR/PLN, for EUR/USD. I know that for EUR/PLN it should be delta p.a forward, for EUR/USD it should be delta ...
465 views

### Yield Curve Volatility

Let you have several issuers, and let each issuer have its yield curve built up with liquid plain vanilla fixed rate bonds. Each yield curve has its slope and its curvature, and they obviously change ...
82 views

### Changes to option valuation for dollar-pegged underlying

In Russia, options on futures on the RTS index are priced in points instead of currency, with points being directly related to the value of the US dollar such that, for example, if the dollar rises, ...
181 views

### Measure change in a bond option problem

This is not a homework or assignment exercise. I'm trying to evaluate $\displaystyle \ \ I := E_\beta \big[\frac{1}{\beta(T_0)} K \mathbf{1}_{\{B(T_0,T_1) > K\}}\big]$, where $\beta$ is the ...
106 views

### Combining Mulitple Forecasts? Budged Constraints?

I'm hoping that someone can lend a hand. I have been reading various papers on how to combine multiple forecast time series. The main paper is Granger and Bates 1969. The suggestion here is that there ...
177 views

### Probability Density of Returns of Bonus Certificates

Could anyone please help me with the following? I need to generate a histogram (resp. probability density) of returns of a bonus-certificate. A bonus-certificate can be replicated by an underlying ...
79 views

Why does dividing daily returns by daily range eliminates fat tails and results in an (almost) gaussian distribution? And how could that distribution be exploited to enter trades?
111 views

### Difference between kappa and delta in mixed-effects model

(This question is a crosspost from Cross Validated) I have a following stochastic model describing evolution of a process (Y) in space and time. Ds and Dt are domain in space (2D with x and y axes) ...
179 views

### Stochastic discount factor (aka deflator or pricing kernel) and class D processes

When (under what assumptions on the model) does a Stochastic Discount Factor need to be of Class D? What would be the implications if it was not? Is it connected to one of the no-arbitrage notions?
79 views

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### QuantLib: New Instrument derived from VanillaOption + PricingEngine that must work for both VanillaOption and the derived class

The derived class is a Vanilla Option on a Future and I need to specify the expiry of the underlying future which is in general different (later) than the expiry of the Vanilla Option. I have ...
30 views

### Good state of the art document about Algo Trading systems

I'm currently working on the requirements phase of a software project, and need get an overview of the industry regarding the tools available for Algo Trading. My first idea was to look for Gartner's ...
37 views

### Match different option high frequency databases

I downloaded the “E-mini S&P 500 (Dollar) Options for 1/10/11” Top-of-Book (BBO) data. If you are interested you may download the data from the following link (approx. 80MB zipped and 1GB ...
28 views

### Pricing options under a specific framework

I have a specific framework in mind and I would like to value options under this framework. I am not sure whether a closed form solution exists or Monte Carlo methods would work. The framework I have ...
24 views

### Fair Price CDS Spread for a Bank

I have been using CreditGrades to calculate fair one year CDS spreads for firms. However, the authors of the model explicitly say that the model does not hold for banks or financial firms. If I need ...
18 views

### Significance testing of average returns from Sharpe ratio

I'm aware that one way to do significance testing on a strategy is based on the sampling distribution of its Sharpe (see, e.g., Lo, 2002 and Opdyke, 2008). However, it appears to me that there's ...
62 views

### Option greeks vs Position greeks

I know that when it comes to delta, you would calculate your position delta (of a stock position) as follows: option delta * position size * 100 For example if I ...
47 views

### Comparing volatility using GARCH

Hi, I am investigating if the policy of inflation targeting lowers the volatility of inflation. I have ran the GARCH regression: Inflation(t) = C + Inflation(t-1) + Inflation(t-2) + Error, but ...
35 views

### Methods or models to predict activity of clients of a bank

I'm a Physicist but I'd like to know if there are some methods or models to predict the activity of the clients of a bank. I heard that banks are interested in this sort of analysis so I got curious ...
36 views

### Adding Asset Weights To Cholesky Output - Monte Carlo in VBA

I am looking to create a Monte Carlo generator in Excel to plot correlated asset paths for a portfolio containing 1 to 10 assets. I have the correlation matrix for all 10 assets and have performed the ...
80 views

### Formula behind pandas.Options() implied volatility

I noted that implied volatility (IV field) from pandas.Options class is very different (especially, for out of money options) than what I compute with Black-Scholes model. (risk free rate is pulled ...
36 views

### Triangular Arbitrage with CFD

I cannot understand how the triangular arbitrage fits with CFD. Assuming there is an arbitrage opportunity: EUR/USD < USD/GBP * GBP/EUR If I do this strategy: 1 Long on EUR/USD at Ask price 1 ...
30 views

### Motivation for hedging volatility using VIX ETNs

i wondered what the motivation for professional investors could be to engage in VIX ETNs. Would they even think about trading this kind of product? (they normally should have access to VIX options, ...
14 views

### Scalar and vectorial sensitivities

In a recent discussion about the implementation of the calculation of derivative sensitivities, the notion 'scalar' and 'vectorial sensitivities' were used. I am not familiar with this notion and ...
44 views

### “Spot rate is not observable” meaning

In Bruno Remillard's text, "Statistical Methods for Financial Engineering," he states the following on p 148 after giving the general form of a bond price $P(t,T)$ under Vasicek's model: Note that ...
80 views

### Determining the investment strategy

I have the following problem: Consider the 5 year investment strategy and given the yearly portfolio returns $S_{t+1}/S_t$ and dividends $D_{t+1}$ paid at $t+1$ which are modeled as: ...
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### Construction of bond portfolio represented by a CDS-Index

Markit publishes investable basket CDS indices. These are indices intended to track the credit risk of a basket of issuers (e.g. in the case of iTraxx Europe Series 24 these are 125 names) in an ...