# All Questions

63 views

### Scaling Intervals in Diffusion Process

I know this is a very elementary question but... when modeling asset prices through a stochastic process as in $$dS_t=S_t μ dt+S_t σdW_t,$$ where the following is a wiener process ...
1k views

### VIX intraday data

Where I can high-frequency intraday data on VIX? Is it available on Bloomberg Terminals? I see many questions posted on Quant.stackexechange about VIX options therefore I am sure someone knows where I ...
209 views

### Examples of non-increasing variance of a time homogeneous Markovian process

This is an edit to the previous question, on stationary process, which was answered by Richard below. Let $x_t$ be a zero mean, time homogeneous Markovian process over time $t$ starting from ...
196 views

### Quotes and Transactions Streams from Exchange

I have possibility of taking 2 types of real time streams from some exchange: bid-ask quotes (fresh quotes from order book) transaction log (transactions matched by exchange) I'm curious what ...
195 views

### Basics about the scaling property of volatility

It is a usual practice to calculate realized volatility $\sigma$ using the square root of the usual variance estimator $\hat{{\sigma}²}$. This is done using the stock log returns (practitioners ...
1k views

### Probability of a return from historical average and standard deviation

I have a question from a sample exam paper that I'm having some trouble figuring out. The question is: Bavarian Sausage stock has an average historical return of 16.3% and a standard deviation of ...
1k views

### Question about weighted midpoint formula

The answers from these two replies seem to contradict each other. The first numerator is bidSize*bidPrice + askSize*askPrice but the second is bidSize*askPrice + askSize*bidPrice. Price functions ...
185 views

### How to value VIX Option?

Could someone tell me a common method for pricing VIX Options please? Do I need to use a Stochastic Vol Model? Or Local Vol Model is suitable as well? Should the model be modelling S&P 500 and ...
5k views

### How to normalize stock data

Please advise how can i normalize stock prices. Recently, I've been using such formulas: Log prices = Ln(Close(t)) Close(t)-Mean (Close(t)-Mean)/(StdDev) Ln(Close(t))-Mean Is there any other ...
2k views

### How to apply Ljung Box Test?

I am checking the closing prices(about 9000+ prices) of the stocks data to test for randomness. The test I am using is Ljung Box test, in MFE toolbox for MATLAB, I used 300 data of closing prices, ...
2k views

### VaR for FX forwards

I am trying to figure out some of the commonly used approaches to deal with FX forwards (in a currency portfolio containing spots, forwards and swaps) that would allow me to calculate the one day VaR ...
246 views

### Why use leverage when it does not improve the risk/reward ratio? [closed]

Leverage will increase gains when things go right but will also increase losses when things go wrong. Mathematically speaking, it does not change the risk/reward ratio (or does it?). Since ...
137 views

### Is it better to hedge or reduce the position size? [closed]

Traders hedge to reduce their risk. However, wouldn't reducing the position achieve the same results while keeping the risk management process simpler? At least, one need not worry about making the ...
142 views

### Calculating spot level using tick data

What is a proper (or commonly used/accepted) way of calculating some spot value with tick data? At the moment I can think of two options: Take the latest available best bid, latest available best ...
259 views

### “Friendly” papers about maximum smoothness yield curve modelling

I'm currently looking to implement some version of the yield curve modeling techniques in the maximum smoothness framework. The papers I have found so far explains the theory pretty well, but I find ...
899 views

### Brownian motion - first passage time

Can anyone point me to the expression for the first passage time for a geometric Brownian motion process X(t) as a function of the starting point, threshold, drift and diffusion parameters. I am ...
97 views

### How do I take an unbiased, sector neutral sample from a stock index?

I am looking to take a cross sector subset of a larger stock index universe. What steps to I take to assure that sector representation is as equal as possible to help smooth out my variance(while ...
105 views

### Trading Elasticity Research

Is there any good research on the price elasticity of trading in financial markets? Things like optimal fee structures and the like?
1k views

### Covariance of a GMV portfolio with any asset

Why is that the covariance of a global minimum variance (GMV) portfolio in the efficient frontier with any asset is always the same?
77 views

### different amount of information on return correlations from shorter and longer periods?

I want to calculate annual excess returns on portfolios using monthly (total) returns for a CAPM (for the assets in the portfolio as well as for the benchmark), in order to have more information on ...
118 views

### What is the smart way to reallocate money?

We are running a portfolio of fund managers in our fund. When one of the managers hits the max DD constraint we pull money from this manager. This may happen in the middle of the allocation period and ...
300 views

### Help with understanding a normal distribution/probability question

Could someone please help me translate what this is saying on page P15, section 4.2: http://www.ntuzov.com/Nik_Site/Niks_files/Research/papers/stat_arb/Ahmed_2009.pdf Specifically: When the ...
400 views

### Need to match my bond price calculation to that of Bloomberg, currently failing hard

I have a fixed-coupon bond with the following characteristics: ...
165 views

### Regression of Unequally Weighted Portfolio against a Single Index

When I regress a single stock against a market index, I get a high value of R2 and beta closer to 1. APPL.fit <- lm(APPL ~ JKSE) When I regress an unequally ...
386 views

### Blackbox Optimization + Bootstrapping = Parameter Selection?

Most automated trading systems have a number of embedded parameters such as the lookback periods, entry and exit thresholds, etc. This is like the moving average crossover system or any of the systems ...
177 views

### Add transaction costs to prediction

An algorithm predicts price movement by some certainty and it invests proportional to the confidence level. Predictions range from -1 to +1, -1 meaning sell for a value of ...
443 views

### Greeks of Basket

I am considering a product composed of 10 underlying assets. The maturity is 5 year. Each year if the performance of the equi-weighted portfolio reach a barrier, it pays a coupon. My question concern ...
220 views

### changes in open interest vs changes in underlying volume

Has a relationship been noted? Mostly, I'd like to know if the open interest increases on an underlying, does the underlying usually see increased trading? My guess would be "yes" since MMs can ...
259 views

### Regression giving the return on a stock

I have this regression equation: $$R_{stock} = 3,28\% + 1,65*R_{market}$$ Where $R_{stock}$ is the expected return on a stock and $R_{market}$ being the market risk premium. I have a one-year ...
151 views

### Volatility Index Weighting Scheme

Among the several weighting schemes used for constructing volatility indices, which ones are the best for forecasting (realized) volatility? I've constructed a volatility index for emerging markets ...
60 views

### Why might a manager consider using an interest-rate in which the notional principal amount declines over time?

Say swap would be used to convert the payments of its portfolio of fixed-rate residential mortgage loans into a floating payment. Why might a manager consider using an interest-rate in which the ...
190 views

### Eurdollar Futures

Trying to understand the Eurdollar market a little better. I understand it's the market for dollar denominated deposits outside the US (not just in Europe). They are unregulated and not subject to ...
356 views

### Probability of trade's exit orders being triggered in random-walk market

When placing a trade with Stop Loss and Take Profit orders in a hypothetical random market (i.e. 0.5 probability of up tick and 0.5 probability of down tick), assuming: x is the distance in ticks of ...
274 views

### Absolute Dollar Form Of Kelly Criterion

Is there a absolute dollar form of the Kelly equation $f=\frac{m}{s^2}$? (i.e. one that does not use percent returns).
118 views

### Exposition of Growth in a Perpetuity

Something that's bugged me since I've ever learned anything about finance: Philosophically(?) speaking, why does growth subtract from a perpetuity's return? I know the mathematical explanation, but ...
285 views

### Minimum variance hedge with more than one asset

My portfolio comprises of 3 assets A,B,C that are correlated and the variance-covariance structure is known. At any given point in time, my position in Asset A say is given to me. I need to ...
444 views

### Unsystematic/Idiosyncratic/Firm-specific volatility/variance in the market model?

I was asked to use idiosyncratic volatility as a regressor in a cross-sectional regression upon cross-sectional returns as the dependent variable. Returns can be thought of as the raw log stock return ...
247 views

### Fastest algorithm for extracting 25% and 75% marks

I'm hand rolling some visualization algorithms. Extracting the min/max of a time series is $O(n)$, for n entries. If I want the 25% and 75% mark, I could use an $O(n \log n)$ time sort, then get the ...
518 views

### What is the instantaneous P&L of a Variance Swap?

What is the instantaneous P&L of a variance swap. Is it $(\sigma^{2}_{t}-\sigma^{2}_{implied})dt$?
680 views

### Does amortization of bond start accumulating on trade date or settlement date?

I am sorry if this is not appropriate here. We are building a wealth management system and I really would like to know whether amortization of bond start accumulating on trade date or settlement date ...
155 views

### How can I estimate the parameters of an option value model of retirement?

I am modelling an option value model of retirement, see for instance Stock and Wise (1990). I am however not sure to which class of problems this model falls into and hence which optimization method I ...
141 views

### Brent Crude Data

I am trying to locate historical volatility data (5+ years) for Brent Crude? Does anyone know where I might be able to source such data?
543 views

### T-note returns from T-note yields … derivation of Damodaran's formula

Damodaran's historical data on 10-year T-note returns (found here) uses the following formula to calculate the 1-period total return on a T-note ($R_1$) given the 10-year constant maturity ...
143 views

### Derivatives with a floating Libor leg

If Libor is found to be fraudulently fixed, are any of the derivative contracts with a floating libor leg still valid?
169 views

### help me compare methods to compute one instrument price from another instrument price

Assume we have two instruments A and B. Also time is increasing from 1 to n. Let's say that ...
256 views

### Normalized data

I am new to this. I trained and tested my data using SVM in Matlab with the autoscale option true => the data would be normalized with unit SD. Let's say the training data have the price around 200. ...
1k views

### How is mean reversion implied by different valuations of Bermudan swaptions?

Someone told me that mean reversion can be implied by the different valuations of bermudan swaptions when using different methods for volatility calibration. Does anyone know what this means?
292 views

### Reading recommendation on using statistical analysis in online fraud prevention [closed]

Can you please recommend good reads on statistical analysis related to online fraud detection and prevention of account abuse?