1
vote
1answer
100 views

Second Moment of Stock Process

I have a stock process which I have decided to model as $$S_T=S_t\exp((r-q-\frac{1}{2}\sigma^2)(T-t)+\sigma(W_T-Wt))-D_T$$ where $D_T$ is a cash dividend at time $T$. This dividend is known. I then ...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

Order flow intensity

I am interested in how to calculate order flow intensity. I got access to high frequency data and can simulate a limit order book. What is the best approach if I want to calculate order flow intensity?...
1
vote
2answers
90 views

Modelling callable bonds in a risk model (historical simulation)

What is a best-practice example on how to model callable bonds in a risk model - I focus on historical simulation (HS). For plain-vanilla bonds the input factors for historical simulation could be ...
1
vote
2answers
66 views

Black-Scholes and Markovian contingent claim

Background information: Proposition 4.1 - For a European Markovian contingent claim, the Black-Scholes price satisfies $$\Theta(\tau,S) = -\frac{\sigma^2 S^2}{2}\Gamma(\tau,S) - rS\Delta(\tau,S) + rV(...
1
vote
1answer
69 views

How do I find the standard deviation of a portfolio? [closed]

Compute the expected return $\mu_V$ and standard deviation $\sigma_V$ of a portfolio consisting of three securities with weights $\omega_1=40\%$, $\omega_2=-20\%$, $\omega_3=80\%$, given that the ...
1
vote
1answer
39 views

construct portfolio offering risk free profit

Have trouble understanding this question, seems quite open ended. Assume that $S(0)$ is the current rate of exchange for foreign currency. Assume that and $K_n$ and $K_f$ are rates of return on home ...
1
vote
1answer
77 views

Clarification of The Market Portfolio

I am currently reading John C. Hulls' "Risk Management and Financial Institutions" and came across the following passage related to the efficient frontier and combinations of risky and risk-free ...
1
vote
1answer
54 views

What is the formula for variance in estimating exchange rate?

I was watching this Youtube Video. He used a exchange rates of Euro to Dollar for a few days and apply GARCH(1,1) to get the predicted price. However, I didnt understand variance that he calculates ...
1
vote
3answers
159 views

Appropriate measure of risk if return are not normally distributed

Normally standard deviation of an assets is used as an proxy for the risk in the financial market. In reality distribution of return is more peaked at the center and higher mass in the tail as ...
1
vote
1answer
154 views

How necessary is real analysis and complex analysis for trading at hedge fund levels?

As the title states, I am basically wanting to know the applications of real/complex analysis in finance. How important are such high levels of math ? I can obviously see how things such as ...
1
vote
2answers
224 views

Who Uses American Options?

...in other words, why would a person want to have the right to exercise an option early? What advantage does that really give you? Are Euro-style options not good enough for some people? Who are ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

How to measure if investors are diversified in a stock market?

My question is related to this question but it is not the same. Consider the US stock market. How can I tell if people trading in this market hold properly diversified portfolios? Is there some ...
1
vote
1answer
156 views

Deriving a 3M libor curve from 6M libor swaps and 3M-6M libor basis swaps

If I had a set of 6M Libor instruments and another set of 3M-6M basis swap instruments, how would I derive the 3M Libor curve? Just bootstrap the 6M curve and the basis curve and add up the zero ...
1
vote
1answer
51 views

About the Feller Condition in Heston Calibration

I have noticed when reading (many) articles about Heston Calibration that not all (few actually) do care about the Feller condition. Below is a compilation of calibration results from some different ...
1
vote
1answer
62 views

Delta of a Commodity Future

Generally the price of a future is $ F(t,T) = S(t)e^{r(T-t)}, $ and it's delta is: $ \frac{\partial F}{\partial S} = e^{r(T-t)}. $ (As opposed to the delta of a forward which is always one.) In ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

Calculating the price of a call and put using multinomial trees and risk-neutral probabilities

I am self-studying for an actuarial exam and I encountered this example. The books shows one method of solving using a replicating portfolio, and then shows this solution involving risk-neutral ...
1
vote
2answers
106 views

Question about the martingale property of stochastic integral

Let $W_{t}$ be a Wiener process, and let $$X_{t} = \int^{t}_{0}W_{\tau}d\tau$$ Is $X_{t}$ a martingale? We can rewrite in differential form as $$dX_{t} = W_{t}dt$$ ,which means $X_{t}$ is a diffusion ...
1
vote
1answer
100 views

Reference request: Quantitative Trading Strategies [closed]

I intend to thoroughly prepare for an internship that I will start in a couple of months, and therefore wanted to clarify what topics I need to study and some recommended references for them. The ...
1
vote
1answer
187 views

Rblpapi / bdh - how to download prices for all weekdays - regardless if it is a bank holiday

Using bdh(), I am trying to download historic weekday prices regardless if the weekday is a holiday or not. The default does not return weekday bank holidays. The ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Bid and Ask Data for european stocks

I am working on something to analyze European stocks and I need some historical data on bid and ask prices. Ideally I would like something like CRSP database for US stocks. Is there some similar ...
1
vote
1answer
89 views

Fx Firm market making

I've been doing market making on forex using the last look feature so far. Now we are moving to do on firm making, but I'm kind of lost. To do firm making we need to post resting orders (currenex ...
1
vote
1answer
136 views

Option Chain Implied Volatility Calculation

I have the following EOD options data for the SPY containing IV data for each strike. ...
1
vote
1answer
80 views

Should a strategy backtested against three years of tick data continue to produce positive results?

Let's say we have a Binary Options 5-minute trading strategy that relies on multiple indicators and exploits price reversals in currency pairs. Now let's say there is a combination of inputs for the ...
1
vote
1answer
206 views

Long Forward Rate Agreement, short Eurodollar futures

For this question If you are long a FRA and short a ED future with the same fixing dates, do you have positive convexity or negative convexity? The answer is positive convexity, because a ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Value at risk in dollars vs. log returns

I have a quick question about this remark in Tsay's book "Analysis of Financial Time Series" (3rd edition). He says that $$ \text{dollar VaR} = \text{Value} \times \text{log return VaR} $$ and that ...
1
vote
1answer
67 views

PPPN: premium with real market data

A few days ago, I posted a question about PPPN's (partially principal protected notes), which can be found here:PPPN: participation rate, stocks and premium. A PPPN in short is a structured product ...
1
vote
1answer
87 views

How to get real interest rate from Nominal spot rates?

I have the nominal spot rates. Based on the Fisher equation , how to get the real interest rate ($r$) and the "expected inflation" ($\pi$) ?
1
vote
2answers
77 views

zero coupon problem calculus

I encounter a problem: do we have the following equality : $B(0,T_{i})e^{\int_{0}^{t}r_{s}ds}=B(t,T_{i})$ and if yes why because I am stuck with this ... I try to use that : $B(t,T_{i}) = B(0,T_{i})e^...
1
vote
2answers
102 views

Analysis of exercising a call option early

Most options traders sell their call options early instead of exercising them, as you would make a bigger profit this way due to being able to salvage some remaining extrinsic value. For example: ...
1
vote
2answers
106 views

Stochastic process theory question

*S follows a process $dS= mSdt + oSdz$ where m and o are constant. What is the probability followed by $ Y=(Se)^{(r-t)} $. If S follows a process $ dS= k (b-S) dt + oSdz $ where k, b, o are ...
1
vote
1answer
422 views

How to calculate daily risk free interest rates

I'm working on an assignment in which I need to calculate excess return for six stocks plus the S&P 500. I have computed daily logarithmic returns for every stock and for the market, I now need to ...
1
vote
1answer
63 views

How to estimate the price of a European call when the underlying is not tradable?

Assume you have a vanilla call on an underlying $S$ with strike price $K$ and expiry at time $T$. Let's say that $S$ follows a GBM with volatility $\sigma$. In general, one would use the Black-...
1
vote
1answer
74 views

MSRV estimation in R

What are the R packages that let you estimate Multi Scale Realized Volatility (MSRV)? So far I've only found highfrequency (which comes with Realized Kernel as well), but from what I understand it ...
1
vote
1answer
43 views

Purpose of ISOs

Why was ISO (Intermarket Sweep Order) introduced? I read that it was introduced to help fill large orders. Some explanation is here: http://tabbforum.com/opinions/why-hfts-have-an-advantage-part-3-...
1
vote
1answer
30 views

A citizen's life as an investment project (from the State's PoV)

An average citizen's life can be seen as an investment project: the State starts investing into prenatal care, the child's education etc., a young man starts making money and paying taxes (breaks even ...
1
vote
2answers
131 views

Which one is best Performance evaluation measures?

I want to compare the performance of various volatility models like GARCH, eGARCH, and gjrGARCH from actual volatility(computed using high frequency data). I found 3 common performance evaluation ...
1
vote
1answer
78 views

Implied volatility as price transform

Implied volatility The way I understand it, traders often think of implied volatility as a transformed price. So in a way, the Black Scholes model is considered a 'model-free' blackbox that takes a ...
1
vote
1answer
57 views

Computing the expected stock growth rate

I need to compute the expected growth rate of a stock given the data: financial leverage 2.0 return on assets 16% dividend payout ratio 60% I don't know how to compute it nor where to start, could ...
1
vote
3answers
114 views

How to get to this answer on Macauley duration?

Can you explain why the answer to the following question is approximately 4.5%: An investor buys a bond that has a Macaulay duration of 3.0 and a yield to maturity of 4.5%. The investor plans to ...
1
vote
3answers
258 views

Best known performance of stock prediction algorithms

I asked this question here and was directed to answer it on this stack exchange. My question is very simple. What is the best [known] performance of a stock prediction algorithm? I've seen papers ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Binomial tree notation

Can someone clarify for me the notation of the nodes in a binomial tree with more than 1 step? Is this notation correct?
1
vote
1answer
84 views

Call and Put Prices Equal at Forward Price - Why?

Consider a European call and put with values $C_t$ and $P_t$, respectively, under the Black-Scholes model. By put-call parity, $$ C_t - P_t = S_t - Ke^{-r(T-t)} $$ for expiration time $T$. Note if $...
1
vote
2answers
129 views

difference between caplet and call

I wanted to know the difference between a caplet and a call. In my course (Interest rate models and curves) , we said that a caplet is a call option. Is it really true? Thanks
1
vote
3answers
109 views

How is fundamental data taken into account when modelling stock prices with a Geometric Brownian Motion?

I have a basic understanding of the principles behind Geometric Brownian Motion and how it can be used to model stock prices, however I am confused as to how it is used in practice. In particular, how ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

Where can I find Value at Risk & Expected shortfall for ETF's?

I'm struggling to find VaR & ES data for ETF's on websites such yahoo finance & Morningstar. Where can I find this data? Thanks,
1
vote
1answer
113 views

How to price touch options using quantlib?

I am new to quantlib and I want use it to to price a touch option (single/double). I searched on google for example code but I could not find anything. Hence, I am ...
1
vote
1answer
46 views

Stressing the going up of LIBOR - Which balance sheet variables to stress?

Analysts expect the LIBOR to rise in the next two years. Hence, all companies that have foreign currency loans will face problems. I am preparing a study on this topic, but data is an extreme issue. ...
1
vote
1answer
216 views

Swap Rate vs Par Rate

If we calculate the par rate for n periods, why does the nth swap rate equal the par rate? A mathematical formulation would be helpful apart from an intuitive answer. Edit: Example:- A 2 year ...
1
vote
4answers
129 views

What is wrong with this argument?

Futures trading in stock index gives leverage. Leverage cuts both ways. It can give you huge pct gains or wipe you out. Typically stock index futures for the major markets have limited daily pct ...
1
vote
1answer
102 views

Sharpe Ratio versus Cumulative Returns

I was asked whether Sharpe Ratio was a better measure than Cumulative Returns, in the context of hedge funds. To me, personally, Sharpe Ratio is a more important measure. By definition, it tells us ...

15 30 50 per page