# All Questions

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### Where do Over-allotment (Greenshoe) option shares come from?

I'm just wondering, if following an IPO the share price goes up and the underwriter calls the option, where do those extra 15% shares come from? Does the company have to issue more stock to cover the ...
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### How can I compare two mutual funds' performance with a sparse set of data?

I want to compare the performance of two mutual funds. The only data I have is annual returns for the past 7 years. So I have 7 observations for Fund 1 and 7 observations for Fund 2. In addition, I ...
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### portfolio optimization with uncertain returns

What is the usual method of dealing with many uncertain mean returns in portfolio optimization? For example say you have a 3 asset portfolio with assets A, B and C. All the correlations and variances ...