# All Questions

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### European Option Technical Exercise

I like to ask a practical question regarding the exercise of European Options: As we know, one may exercise a European option only at maturity $T$. But for example, if the option can be exercised ...
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### Is the market really Normal. Is Implied Volatility Historically Correct?

Ok. So as of 6/10/2014's market close the SPY was 195.6 and the VIX closed at a ridiculous recent low of 10.99. Now because the VIX (IV) is the implied volatility of 1 month contracts on the SPX and ...
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### Can one use the Greeks (delta,gamma,theta) to show that the Black-Scholes call formula satisfies the Black-Scholes PDE?

If so, is there a derivation anywhere that shows this? I was told that this could be done in a class but I don't see how it's possible.
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### Calculating the sensitivity of the modified bond duration to changes in the coupon rate

Given that $B=Ce^{-y} + Ce^{-2y}+ (100+C)e^{-3y}$ where B is the bond price, C is the coupon. and It is a 3 years annual coupon bond. I want to find $\frac{dD}{dC}$ where $D$ is the modified ...
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### Standard way to represent trend in an a-dimensional way [closed]

Let us suppose that a factory needs to know when certain products are increasing the profit. This factory produces an huge number of products each with different targets. So the factory need to ...
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### Order book depth views preferences: order-by-order vs. total aggregated volume by price levels

Which is best? Or is it irrelevant? Hi! Considering Level 2 Data (Market Depth), I want to understand the advantages to have all the order book on an order-by-order basis (or tick-by-tick basis) ...
358 views

### How to look for fractals/harmonics patterns in time series?

I want to build trading systems based on two things: 1)Fractal Theory 2)Harmonics Pattern I have read the book : The Misbehavior of Markets: A Fractal View of Financial Turbulence By Mandelbrot ...
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### Proxy for a trigonometric angle function [closed]

You can't calculate an actual/real angle with the sine function with discrete market data. I need a substitute value for inputs that require an angle value. If you're only calculating the angle ...
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### Any package to run BEKK-GARCH-X models in R [duplicate]

I tried using a package called mgarchBEKK (or mgarch) to estimate a VECM-GARCH model with a BEKK approach. It seems like the package firstly estimates the VECM model, then uses the residuals (Epsilon ...
I need to calculate the price of exchange option between 2 assets $S_1$ and $S_2$ The formula is given here Wiki: Magrabe formula or here Quant Stack Exchange. In the derivation of the formula it is ...