# All Questions

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### Given Brownian motion $B_t,B_s$ and $t>s$, how to calculate$P(B_t>0,B_s<0)$?

As stated, this is an interview questons Given Brownian motion $B_t,B_s$ and $t>s$, how to calculate$P(B_t>0,B_s<0)$?
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### Mix of Arithmetic and Geometric Brownian Motion

Talking with some traders the other day, I found out that they were using a pricing model based on a mix between a geometric brownian motion and an arithmetic brownian motion to price certain ...
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### Mutual Fund Holdings

Several free and non-free data providers provide mutual fund holdings (e.g. Google and Yahoo give the top holdings). The primary sources, I think, are the filings submitted to SEC's EDGAR. Both the ...
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### Move along, nothing to see here…just a super cheap stock price for an instant?

Can someone explain what this large negative spike in this stock chart is in after-hours trading? It almost looks like a data glitch to me, since the value before and after the spike are almost ...
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### Pricing a Vanilla swap between coupons; What rates to use?

Vanilla Swap question. Entered into a 5Y fixed for floating HUF swap. Fixed is annual coupons, Float is semi-annual coupons. 1 month later I want to price it. I set up my future values for Fixed ...
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### Theoretical price of bond : utility

Why should one calculate the theoretical price of bond if there is already a market quote ?
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### Swaptions to calculate swap exposure for CVA

I am looking at using the swaption method to calculate the EPE and ENE on a swap over its life, to use in CVA/DVA calculations. I have a number of questions, how well does this method work in ...
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### Why does a barbell portfolio have higher convexity than a bullet porfolio

I cannot quite understood absolutely why a barbell portfolio has higher convexity than a bullet porfolio. I can easily understand how the parallel line represents duration but I cannot see what ...
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### Log-normal Volatility Approximation

In a comment to this question, it is mentioned that, under the log-normal distribution, \begin{align*} vol(k) \approx vol(atm) \times \sqrt{\frac{atm}{k}}. \end{align*} Here, $k$ is the strike, $atm$ ...
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### Calibration: comparing models

Exponential Lévy models fall in two main categories: jump diffusion models and infinite activity Lévy models. For my paper, I study jump diffusion models and in particular Merton's model (i.e normall ...
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### how to convert quarterly data to monthly

Is there any way to convert quarterly data to monthly in excel or preferably in STATA? I Next to that, how can I transform dates in excel so as to be recognized by STATA?
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### accuracy of Yahoo Finance stock data (Python module)

I am using the yahoo finance python module: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/yahoo-finance I am using it for a project and would like to see if anybody else uses data from this source and can vouch for ...
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### Forex Market Timezones

I need to store OHLC data from the Forex Market. I live in the UK which is presently in British Summer Time +1. The Forex Market EST, which is normally -5 from GMT. I'm not sure how Eastern ...
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### The Relation Between the Ricci flow and the Black-Scholes-Merton Equation

Grisha Perelman once wrote that The Ricci-flow equation, a type of heat equation, is a distant relative of the Black-Scholes equation that bond traders around the world use to price stock and ...
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### PCA for stand alone equity VaR

I am trying to compute equity VaR, forex VaR and total VaR on an international portfolio (10 stocks x 4 countries). Since I am not interested in the risk disaggregation among diffrent countries I was ...
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### SABR Implied Volatility and Option Prices

I am trying to understand the SABR model. Specifically, I am having difficulty to understand how to calibrate the model parameters, that is, initial variance, volatility of variance, exponent for ...
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### Downward sloping smile in normal model

We consider an stock price $S$ following a normal model: $dS_t = \sigma dW_t$ We can write this as $\frac{dS_t}{S_t}=\frac{\sigma}{S_t}dW_t$ Hence we can see that $S$ follows a "log-normal" ...
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### How do you check your option calculations?

I'm implementing a bunch of different algorithms to price options/find Greeks: finite difference, Monte Carlo, binomial... I'm not really sure how to check my calculations. I tried using QuantLib to ...
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### Python everywhere but where do they execute orders?

About every introduction I've read about automatic trading writes about how well python is suited for the task. But looking around, I've been able to find just one brooker, Oanda, which has a python ...
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### garchOxFit in R-oxo file does not match

Could someone please help me with trying to get the Ox interface to work in R. I get the following errors as output: This version may be used for academic research and teaching only Link error: '...
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### What happened to the French franc value in August 1969?

I stumbled onto a bit of a mystery. A strange financial blip in a historical database crossed my path and I was wondering if anyone could explain its meaning/cause for me? If this is not the right ...
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### Binary Options hedge Forex position

if I am short GBPJPY and it start to jump up, instead of closing it, could I use Binary Options to long it immediately after jump up? So I could hedge current Forex position if possible.
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### How to choose the correct ticker for rates?

I would like to calculate funding liquidity following Asness/Moskowitz/Pedersen (2013). Among others, they calculate the LIBOR minus term repo rate, and the Swap-T-bill, LIBOR minus interest rate ...
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### Swaption Corridor Payoff Diagram

What does the payoff diagram look like for a long payer swaption corridor? For example, suppose that I am looking at a long-payer $1 \times 10$-year swaption with 10Y swaps as the underlying. If I ...
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### How to convert Jensen's Alpha from monthly to quarterly observations

I am being puzzled while calculating jensen's alpha for single stocks. I have monthly returns data and have calculated alpha for each stock on a monthly basis (used 36-month rolling window for beta ...
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### Simple value of a Forward contract at an intermediate time question

I am taking "Financial Engineering and Risk Management Part I" from Columbia University on coursera and I got a seemingly simple question wrong on the first quiz. This is all based on the no-arbitrage ...
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### EM for conditional Gaussian model

Let $$X_1\sim N(\mu_{X_1},\sigma_{X_2}^2)$$ $$X_2\sim N(\mu_{X_2}, \sigma_{X_2}^2)$$ where $\mu_{X_2}=c+aX_1$. Also, I have data $D$ (with missing values on $X_1,X_2$). How can I update/estimate the ...
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