# Tag Info

## Hot answers tagged covariance

5

Have a look at this classic paper: Honey, I Shrunk the Sample Covariance Matrix by O. Ledoit and M. Wolf The abstract answers your question already: The central message of this article is that no one should use the sample covariance matrix for portfolio optimization. It is subject to estimation error of the kind most likely to perturb a ...

5

The estimation of a covariance matrix is unstable unless the number of historical observations $T$ is greater than the number of securities $N$ (5000 in your example). Consider that 10 years of data represents only 120 monthly observations and about 2500 daily observations. Depending on the application, using data dating farther back than 10 years may be ...

5

Transaction costs - even for banks, funds etc, every trade has an associated cost, so if you would be buying a small number of shares, it's probably cheaper to carry the risk and not make those small trades. The source data is imperfect, and contains noise. A lot of the smaller components are simply artefacts of that noise so it would be both an unnecessary ...

5

To clarify notation, you have an universe of $n=2000 \space$ stocks and two portfolio vectors $\mathbf{a},\mathbf{b}\in\mathbb{R}^{n}$ with $\left\|\mathbf{a}\right\|_{1}=\left\|\mathbf{b}\right\|_{1}=1$. Further, you have Estimators for the true Variance $\operatorname{Var}\left[\mathbf{a}\right]$ resp. $\operatorname{Var}\left[\mathbf{b}\right]$ and the ...

5

The given matrix can not represent a covariance matrix since it would imply that asset 1 is negatively correlated to asset 2 and asset 3. But asset 2 is negatively correlated to asset 3 which contradicts the first statement. In general a covariance matrix has to be positive semi-definite and symmetric, and conversely every positive semi-definite symmetric ...

4

If $\Sigma$ is the covariance matrix of all assets and $w$ is the column vector of weightings of the asset in a certain portfolio. Then $$w^T \Sigma w = VAR$$ is the variance of the portfolio. The contribution to volatility of asset $i$ is given by $$w_i (\Sigma w)_i/\sqrt{VAR},$$ where $(\Sigma w)_i$ is the $i_{th}$ entry in the vector $\Sigma w$. Note ...

3

You can obtain the covariance between 2 portfolios by multiplying the row vector, containing the weights of portfolio A with the variance-covariance matrix of the assets and then multiplying with the column vector, containing the weights of assets in portfolio B. Equally you can set up a new portfolio A+B by creating a new column vector that contains the ...

3

There are several measures discussed in the literature, the classical approach is Markowitz mean-variance portfolio optimization. The formula for portfolio return variance is $$\sigma_p^2 = \sum_i w_i^2 \sigma_{i}^2 + \sum_i \sum_{j \neq i} w_i w_j \sigma_i \sigma_j \rho_{ij}$$ where $\rho_{ij}$ are the correlations betweent the assets. Others suggeste ...

2

Let there be n stocks, 2 portfolio a and b. c is a combined portfolio of portfolio a and portfolio b. $\Sigma$ is variance-covariance matrix of the n assets. Weight vectors for portfolios a and b are $$w_{pa},w_{pb}\in\mathbb{R}^{n} ,$$ $$\left\|w_{pa}\right\|_{1}=\left\|w_{pb}\right\|_{1}=1$$ then $$Var(a)= w_{pa}' \Sigma w_{pa}$$ Var(b)= w_{pb}' ...

2

I would advice you not to do any overlapping analysis. The results will be hard to interpret and misleading. I have seen many "practioners" looking at histograms of overlapping returns. They saw interesting patterns and found funny explanations - which were simply wrong. If you are new to econometrics then correction methods (do there exist helpful ...

2

Go ahead and compute a sample covariance matrix with 5,000 stocks on a few years (or less) of daily or monthly returns data. This can be done almost instantly on a modern computer. There is a very good chance that this matrix will not be a covariance matrix. You can check by inspecting the eigenvalues. If any are negative then you don't have a covariance ...

2

My answer will be very non-quantitative but the resulting models are actually quite mathematical but I like to stick to a general overview because of the proprietary nature of those models. Here couple thoughts though: You can't just try to explain market moves by a few indicators or a single Fed speech (by the way, the market hugely misread those ...

1

Your question is formulated in a very general way, this is why any answer will need to be general as well. In a nutshell and in full generality you need to estimate the joint distribution from your historical data since in most cases correlations alone are not sufficient to define the joint distribution. In a second step you can calculate the distribution ...

1

I have written R code for some time-varying bivariate fat-tailed copula functions (ripped off Patton's Matlab code) and played around with various optimizers. You can then use Rsolnp, nloptr, alabama or DEoptim packages to find an optimisation solution. Here is some R code where I play around with different optimisation algorithms. Note that the data2.csv ...

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