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8

You should look at Paul Willmott's Frequently Asked Questions In Quantitative Finance. He offers 12 (I think) ways of deriving BS and I think you'll find what you look for there. The cool thing is that you really have many different approaches; one is the classic PDE, one is done using change of measure, one is done using binary trees, and so on.... Really ...


7

I provided an answer, based on an elementary approach, to an exactly same question yesterday. However, that question has disappeared, even though I like to keep a record for what I wrote. I would suggest that people do not delete their questions as they may be helpful for others. Here, I re-post that answer. We assume that, under the risk-neutral measure,...


5

Specifically, we have a generic conditional claim, $C$, that is a function of the diffusion process for the underlying, $S(t)$, and time $t$ so $C = C(S(t), t)$. As you pointed out, $C$ is an Ito process becuase it is a function of a stochastic process so we use Ito's Lemma to determine how the contingent claim varies as a function of the diffusion process $...


4

See this excellent paper by @MarkJoshi which defines/discusses the use of power numeraires. Starting from a dynamics specified under the risk-neutral measure $\mathbb{Q}$ \begin{align} &\frac{dS_t}{S_t} = (r-q) dt + \sigma dW_t^{\mathbb{Q}}\\ \iff& S_T\ \vert\ \mathcal{F}_t = S_t e^{(r-q-\frac{\sigma^2}{2})(T-t) + \sigma(W_T-W_t)} \tag{EQ.0} \...


2

I agree with vanguard2k's comment: A few more details on the notation would be helpful. But, as far as I can tell, the second equality is a simple expansion. First, $\mathbf{1}'\mathbf{1} = T$ (assuming the vectors are elements of $\mathbb{R}^T$). The expression $\mathbf{1} (\mathbf{1}'\mathbf{1})^{-1} \mathbf{1}'$ is therefore nothing else than a $T\times ...


2

Let's suppose $P$ is total annual deposits made continuously, then the change in value of total deposits $dV_t$ is (assuming no condition on additional deposits) $$dV_t= V_t r dt + P dt $$ where we assumed $r$ is constant. Solving above differential equation, we have: $$V_T = V_0 e^{rT} + \frac{P}{r} (e^{rT} -1)$$ Assuming $t_1$ is the time period at ...


2

Since $Y=e^{(r-\frac{\sigma^2}{2})\tau + \sigma \sqrt{\tau}Z}$, then \begin{align*} xY > K \Leftrightarrow Z > -d_2, \end{align*} where \begin{align*} d_2 = \frac{\ln \frac{x}{K} + (r-\frac{\sigma^2}{2})\tau}{\sigma\sqrt{\tau}}. \end{align*} Consequently, \begin{align*} e^{-r\tau}\mathbb{E}\big(Y \mathbb{1}_{\{xY >K\}} \big) &= e^{-\frac{\sigma^...


1

let $\frac{\partial C}{\partial S}=\delta_c$ let $\frac{\partial^2 C}{\partial S^2}=\Gamma_c$ let $\frac{\partial C_0}{\partial S}=\delta_0$ let $\frac{\partial^2 C_0}{\partial S^2}=\Gamma_0$ we want $\frac{\partial V}{\partial S}=\frac{\partial C}{\partial S}=\delta_c$ and $\frac{\partial^2 V}{\partial S^2}=\frac{\partial^2 C}{\partial S^2}=\Gamma_c$ ...


1

What is the data basis that you start from? If you just have the covariance matrix, then you can only calculate portfolio variance or volatility by $$ w^T \Sigma w$$ where $w$ are the portfolio weights and $\Sigma$ is the covariance matrix. If you have the individual asset continuously compounded returns $r^j_t$ where $j$ indexes assets, $j=1,\ldots,N$, and $...



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