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I use the 'implied correlation' defined as $$ \rho = \frac{V^2_P-\sum V^2_j}{(\sum V_j)^2-\sum V^2_j} $$ for $V_p$ the VaR (or volatility) of the portfolio, and $V_j$ the VaRs (or volatilities) of the individual components. Essentially it shows what would be the common correlation that I would need to use in order to aggregate the stand-alone risks to the ...


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In 2006 Choueifaty proposed a measure of portfolio diversification, called the Diversification Ratio (DR), which he defined as the ratio of the weighted average of the volatilities of the assets in the portfolio, to the portfolios overall volatility. The DR of a long only portfolio is greater than or equal to one, and equals unity for a ...


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You can also use the Herfindahl-Hirschman-Index (HCI) as a measure for concentration. In portfolio analysis, you can calculate it as $\frac{1}{N} \leq HCI(x) = \sum_{i=1}^N x_i^2 \leq 1$ where $x$ is a vector of $N$ portfolio asset weights. One can easily see that $HCI(x) = 1$ if 100% is invested in a single asset, and $HCI(x) = 1/N$ if the portfolio is ...


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since you've assumed that all returns are independent, the covariance matrix, $C,$ is diagonal. In the comments, you are assuming that the investor is a mean-variance investor. It's a general result that every portfolio that maximizes return for a given variance is a tangent portfolio for some risk-free rate, $R.$ Let $e=(1,1,...,1).$ and let $\mu$ be the ...


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I think the first step is to define what you mean by "properly diversified". A traditional/fundamental standpoint would be that the portfolio is comprised of many different sectors, industries, ect. The more "quant-like" approach and in my opinion, a more realistic approach, is to understand correlation between portfolio assets and the dynamics of said ...


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As you and @Malick noted, VaR only gives a certain threshold given a certain confidence but says nothing about what happens beyond that point (tail risk). For loss distributions with long tails, this would underestimate the risk. Regarding VaR having a problem with diversification - VaR is technically not a coherent risk measure. In simple terms, we would ...


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Exactly, VaR is nothing more than a threshold loss value. But it does not tell you how big your loss can be (no information about the shape of the tail). To get more information about it you can use the Expected shortfall which is the expected loss given that a loss occurs in the tails. Diversification decreases the VaR, however extreme events may be, ...


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Alex C's and Kiwiakos' answers are definitely the most realistic approaches. If you are open to consider also other kinds of risk measures, further alternatives might be thought of. Variance / correlation based approaches interprete "diversification" as how much your assets are heterogeneous from the point of view of deviations from the historical mean. In ...


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The total volatility of a portfolio is calculated as follows: Recall that Cov(a,b) is just (Correlation a,b)/(StD A * StD B). So in this case, no the portfolio could not have a total volatility of less than 15%. For this to happen, we would need negative correlation between the two assets. Think of volatility in this case as the amount of movement in ...



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