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Here is a good explanation by the SF Fed. In a nutshell, there is the current account (trade deficit/ surplus) financial account (asset bought/ sold overseas) and the capital account (intangible assets, usually negligible). The sum of the three for each country is zero by definition. Therefore the trade deficit must be accompanied by a financial account ...


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I think that you have to distinguish between a 'fiat' (modern) monetary system and a 'gold standard' one. But sustainability will always be ensured endogenously, one way or another. Fiat money is created whenever a loan is made, and the \$50 you describe will be created endogenously in the economy. Advocates would call it a virtous rather than a vicious ...


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The interest does not necessarily come from another loan. The ECB is paying interest to banks which is essentially to create ("print") new money. It is a fact, that the money supply is constantly growing over time, which in a simple model would just equal the interest paid out on loans. That does not necessarily have something to do with the economy being ...



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