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The answer is that you may use an approach that includes IRR, but that's not a necessary component of what I would consider a good model. I have seen commercial tools that include them and those that don't. I have also seen practitioners set the variables in packages that include this approach, so that they were not a relevant component of the resulting ...


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IEX is an ATS. The ECN/ATS business is dominated by rampant and well known conflicts of interest. A part of the IEX value proposition from the beginning was to offer an alternative to traders who were disenfranchised by this market structure. If maker-taker rebates are part of your trading business model or if you engage in any strategy that could be deemed ...


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Assume the weights of the two assets are $w$,$1-w$ respectively;the expected returns and standard deviations are denoted by $\mu$,$\sigma$ with subscripts 1,2,p(for portfolio),i.e,we have $\mu_1$,$\mu_2$,$\mu_p$,$\sigma_1$,$\sigma_2$,$\sigma_p$.The correlation coefficent is $\rho$ Then $$\sigma_p^2=w^2\sigma_1^2+(1-w)^2\sigma_2^2+2w(1-w)\sigma_1\sigma_2\rho ...


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The concrete (general) answer to part (ii) of my question seems to be contained in Equation 8 of the following link: http://www.columbia.edu/~ks20/FE-Notes/4700-07-Notes-portfolio-I.pdf In particular, interpreting $\sigma$ as volatility, take for example $E_A=0.10,\sigma_A=0.15,E_B=0.25,\sigma_B=0.40$ and $\rho =−0.2$. I get that about 83 percent of the ...


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Since $Y=e^{(r-\frac{\sigma^2}{2})\tau + \sigma \sqrt{\tau}Z}$, then \begin{align*} xY > K \Leftrightarrow Z > -d_2, \end{align*} where \begin{align*} d_2 = \frac{\ln \frac{x}{K} + (r-\frac{\sigma^2}{2})\tau}{\sigma\sqrt{\tau}}. \end{align*} Consequently, \begin{align*} e^{-r\tau}\mathbb{E}\big(Y \mathbb{1}_{\{xY >K\}} \big) &= ...


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I think to gain intution you have to understand that the same agents that value the stocks will value the options. And agents compensate for volatility by demanding higher expected returns. Therefore you should ask: Why are stocks priced as they are in the first place? In your example, the stock with higher volatility has much lower expected return. This ...


2

Yes and No. In the absence of arbitragers, the price of the option will be different for each speculator based on their drift expectations (and each speculator has a risk in his position and will limit his ability to trade large sizes to avoid bankruptcy) and the option price will converge to priced off a supply-and-demand driven drift expectation. ...


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Because you can hedge. Once you have delta hedged, the pay-off is symmetric about up and down moves so drift doesn't matter. Also the delta-hedged call and the delta hedged put have to have the same value since they have the same pay-off. (Put-call parity) Yet any argument that the call should be worth more because of drift says that the put should be ...


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Practically, it is very difficult to get a measurement of a stock's true drift while there are very well-documented processes to estimate volatility. It is therefore very convenient mathematically to select the risk neutral pricing measure that eliminates idiosyncratic drift. At its heart, Black Scholes constructs a dynamic, replicating portfolio for an ...


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Singer and Terhaar original paper can be found at this link. They do not provide an explanation about how to estimate this factor and just mention that both values provide a boundary. The CFA curriculum mentions that " For example, it has been observed that developed market bonds & equities are approx 80% integrated and 20% segmented.", however the ...



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