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15

VIX measures volatility. It doesn't always go up if stocks go down.


12

Actually there are more than just ideas and hints concerning this topic. There is an intuitive model and solution to your question already using machinery of option theory. But don't worry, it's not a surprise that you didn't find any useful literature in your search because the proposed solution actually comes from a very different topic. In addition to ...


12

Short Version : Two main uses I'm doing an arbitrage/statarb strategy (volatility for instance) which should not be dependant on the Delta (I'm an arbitragist). I HAVE to keep a product in my portfolio, but I don't want to be EXPOSED to it (I'm a market maker). Long Version : The goal of Dynamic Hedging is not down the line to earn risk free rate of ...


11

I might be misunderstanding your question. My thoughts: being short gamma is being long volatility your comment re gamma increasing regardless of direction only holds for ATM options. For ITM options, being short gamma is being long the underlying. For OTM options, being short gamma is being short the underlying. Some graphs: Below, except as ...


10

VIX also has a lot of complexities that make it a less-than-ideal hedging tool if you're buying a VIX ETF. http://vixandmore.blogspot.com/ goes into it at length and can probably also answer any questions you have about the VIX as a hedge. To expand on what @barrycarter said, the VIX is better as a hedge against kurtosis, not against downward movements.


9

It partly depends on the use case. If one is taking multiple strategies and assembling a portfolio that includes multiple different strategies and is mixing this with a heavy weighting to an equity index, then this might be a useful measure. Zero or negative beta does have meaning, in the same way that correlation has meaning. In the more traditional ...


9

I would split the question into two sub-questions: Is market beta useful at all? Is market beta useful for high-frequency strategies that are fully hedged EOD? With regards to the first question, I would summarize the hundreds of papers on the subject as: yes, but not as much as it was initially believed. The reason being that multi-factor models are ...


9

Great question! I think the most useful starting point is Stock Return Characteristics, Skew Laws, and the Differential Pricing of Individual Equity Options by Bakshi, Kapadia and Madan (2003). Their paper proposes a definition of model-free implied skewness (they originally called it risk-neutral skewness, but MFIS is more accurate), which they prove will ...


8

Being short gamma simply means that you are short options regardless of whether they are puts or calls. The most common type of investor that is willing to be short gamma is someone who sells options, also known as a premium collector. These investors commonly use strategies such as short puts, covered calls, iron condors, vertical credit spreads, and a ...


8

Options are actually some of the least susceptible securities to the adverse impact of counterparty risk. I refer to listed options, such as those cleared through the OCC (Options Commodity Clearinghouse) in Chicago, IL. The OCC is a true central clearing counterparty (CCC) because it bears all default risk, by distributing it evenly among its members. The ...


8

You are missing the futures basis and roll cost. Futures expire, and need to be rolled into the new expiry. The basis is not static and can vary considerably, depending on the specific underlying and contract. Quants may have a hard time to appreciate this but the basis is not at all fully quantifiable at all times: It can hugely vary entirely due to shifts ...


7

The paper "Do option markets correctly price the probabilities of movement of the underlying asset? " by Yacine Aït-Sahalia, Yubo Wang, and Francis Yared should in my opinion provide many very usefull elements for this question (look in particular at section 3). Regards


6

You are absolutely right to point out that most proactive participants in options markets prefer to be long gamma, and it is typically reactive market makers who take the opposite side of their trades. While the typical options trader (I find it difficult to call anyone trading options an "investor") does not hedge his position, market makers will attempt ...


6

Short gamma is a bet on volatility (expressed as hedging costs) not getting too large. The key concept here is that you get paid to be short gamma. Consider that any option is sold for a bit more more than its intrinsic value (the extra bit is often called volatility value.). If nothing moves, then the option ultimately expires precisely at intrinsic ...


6

Keep in mind that most futures, equity, and index options, at least, are traded on exchanges where the counterparty risk is so tiny as to be negligible. In general, adding extra variables like this fails to invalidate the model. For example, the fact that interest rates or volatilities are not constant just ends up leading to an extended model with extra ...


5

The delta factor you seek is the spot to futures price ratio without having to use all those parameters. Now to answer your actual question: Since you are getting futures data, you presumably have the tickers. You can infer the expiration date from the ticker. Expiration dates are always on the third Friday of the month, and the ticker contains four ...


5

You have to differentiate here between the risk-taking and the market-making side. As a risk-taker, like e.g. a hedge-fund, you are right, you could just buy the bond! But as a market-maker you sell these options but don't want to bear the risk, so you have to counterbalance it. You could of course counterbalance it with another option which would be the ...


4

By William Bernstein, source: In June of 1992 academicians Eugene Fama and Kenneth French ("F/F") rocked the investing world with a study published in the Journal of Finance, innocuously entitled "The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns." The piece is the cognitive equivalent of an enormous hunk of marzipan cake which sits in your ...


4

I would assign the cost of incompleteness as the 90th percentile of N-period losses expected on the mis-hedged portfolio (where N is perhaps 5 trading days -- enough for a trader to get hit by a bus and someone else to catch up on his book). This is nicely compatible with VaR computations, corrects for the fact that expected cost of a mis-hedge is usually ...


4

The key in vix based etn's, or any exotic etf/etn in general is the tracking error. Compared to the spot vix (or short spot vix), even considering the long-short term structure features that xvix has, the tracking error is going to be nontrivial. Even leveraged equity basket etfs have terrible tracking error. The exotics are even worse... Just compare a ...


4

If you get paid enough theta it absolutely makes sense to be short gamma. And the closer to expiration, the faster the time-value flees. Most of the time, most people would prefer to be gamma long though. It's simply a safer bet because of uncertainty: unexpected events can seriously damage your book if you're short vol.


4

If you're long the underlying and short the futures contract, then you have no risk and earn the risk-free rate. You get into the position at $S_0$ and will be able to get out of the position at $F_0$ at time $T$. By a no arbitrage argument it must be that $F_0 = S_0 \exp(r T)$. I imagine Hull has a pretty good exposition on this. The risk premium is ...


4

Yes, it is definitely possible to do so. With a long fixed-income portfolio, you'd typically be buying puts on treasury futures or writing calls on them (writing calls may not be feasible if you're an institutional investor due to regulatory reasons). In general, duration for long puts/short calls would be negative. However see caveats below: Typically, ...


4

Short gamma is being of the view that realized volatility would be less than the implied volatility for the period in which an option is valid. So if you think realized volatility in the future would be consistently lesser than implied volatility at present, then you'd be short gamma. The premium one would receive by selling an option (call or put) is a ...


4

I think there is an error implicit in your question. Dynamic delta hedging, even assuming the underlying process is a continuous martingale and trading entails zero transaction costs, only eliminates the directional risk. A number of residual risks remain, most notably volatility risk, embodied in both the gamma and vega. A dynamically hedged portfolio of ...


4

In practice, absolute summability of hedging errors may not be applicable. Mostly, for the sequences of hedging errors, one relaxes the absolute convergence criteria and uses the squared summability of hedging errors. Note: Absolute summability is a stricter condition than squared summability. Some sequences may not be absolute summable but are only squared ...


4

This is usually called Pin Risk. It's difficult because there is a high degree of uncertainty regarding the whether the options you sold are exercised or not. If you don't hedge, your short options could be exercised and you are left with risky net short position in the underlying. If you hedge and your short options are not exercised, then you have a long ...


3

While not really an answer, here are my thoughts on the problem. For starters, I would approach the problem as one of whether a portfolio which is constantly rebalanced over some horizon can be replicated using vanilla options. Obviously the portfolio will have to be rolled over when the options reach expiration. Then the rest, such as payoff diagram and ...


3

(1) Assuming the portfolio comprises mostly senior VRDOs or comparable muni-floaters, one way of sizing a SIFMA-indexed swap would be to find the historical root-mean-square volatility of the coupon fixings of the portfolio constituents and weight them by their percentage nominal to get a proxy for the portfolio volatility. Do the same for the SIFMA index. ...


3

Perhaps I don't understand your question correctly but one Synthetic Long Futures Construction equals "Buy one ATM Call" and "Sell one ATM Put" (see e.g. here: http://www.theoptionsguide.com/synthetic-long-futures.aspx)



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