# Tag Info

8

To recover the Black-Scholes pricing equation, you should first express the standard normal cdf in terms of its characteristic function analogous to the Heston solution: $$N(x) = \frac{1}{2} - \frac{1}{\pi} \int_0^{\infty} Re [\frac{e^{-i\phi x} f(\phi)}{i\phi}] d\phi$$ where $f(\phi)$ is the characteristic function of the standard normal distribution:  ...

5

First, to make that clear: The Heston model does not generate negative volatility, but - for example - an Euler discretization of the Heston model may generate negative volatility (or variance). It is not a problem of the model. It is a problem of the numerical scheme. If you use an Euler scheme which generates negative volatility and then use any of the ...

4

You can find the derivation of the Heston characteristic function (its Fourier Transform) in Gatheral (2006). Using the characteristic function, you can optimize the model on the prices. There are multiple approaches to optimize, among others pattern search (which is very slow) and stochastic optimization (randomly jump around and stop after n iterations), ...

4

I highly recommend you to stick with the error function (RMSE) value minimization approach. I love MC techniques for this and related problem solving and thus do not recommend you to use anything else because of its simplicity and transparency. It comes down to using the right discretization function and to possibly implement variance reduction approaches. ...

4

I know two papers explaining how to calibrate this kind of models, and one of them explain the impact of the quality of the fit on a pricing model: Aït-Sahalia, Y. (2002, January). Maximum likelihood estimation of discretely sampled diffusions: A closed-form approximation approach. Econometrica 70 (1), 223-262. Azencott, R., Y. Gadhyan, and R. Glowinski ...

4

You don't need to use the Sobol sequence to generate quasi-random numbers in MATLAB. We know the Heston model is represented by the bi-variate system of stochastic differential equations (SDE): \begin{align} & d{{S}_{t}}=rS_tdt+{\sqrt\upsilon_t} d{{W}_{1}}(t) \\ & d{{\upsilon}_{t}}=\kappa(\theta-\upsilon_t) ...

3

I would say Start with Black Scholes to look at accuracy. In particular, you have a closed formula and you know what the characteristic function for lognormal is. Running FFT and comparing FFT pricing with the closed formula will give you an idea of what are the convergence issues, what is the behaviour at the boundaries (extreme strikes) etcetera. Then ...

3

1) Gatheral expresses everything in forward terms: forward value of the spot and of the call. Consider an asset $A$. You need to hold $A$ at time $T$ but since you don't need it now you don't want to buy it now. Instead you enter a forward contract with someone that says that at time $T$ you will pay the amount $K$ and get the asset in exchange. What ...

3

Expanding a bit on chrisaycock's answer, and noting in particular from the abstract In mathematical finance, solutions to obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. we can see that this would be used to price those few rare cases of perpetual options. ...

3

From this abstract: The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic ...

3

Doesn't the Heston model have some Fourier transform formulae for pricing vanillas? I think one could use those to calibrate to the vanillas. Can't provide references at this moment, on the road. Edit: check out http://www.visixion.com/dok/Visixion_Calibrating_Heston.pdf -- I haven't read this closely but it sounds familiar

3

V(t) is the variance process of the stock price, not volatility process. Cox-Ingersoll-Ross demonstrated that that specific process can be non-negative under certain conditions, which is what you want for variance.

2

It is not necessarily something that must be wrong with your model. Inherent in the Heston discretization methods of its continuous time dynamics is the possibility of negative values in the variance process. Here are couple solutions you can look at in order to "fix" your problem: Usage of different Euler schemes, such as the Full Truncation scheme. ...

2

To check your results, you might try "The Heston Model: A Practical Approach with Matlab Code" by Nimalin Moodley, http://math.nyu.edu/~atm262/fall06/compmethods/a1/nimalinmoodley.pdf , in particular the www.ingber.com open source C++ code for Adaptive Simulated Annealing (+ SWIG to wrap/parse it to the language you are using)

2

In options pricing language, the probability of a spot process being above a given level $K$ at time $T$ is the undiscounted price of a digital call option on that spot process. In the Heston model, there is an analytic expression for this in terms of Fourier transform. You can find this in various standard references, e.g. Alan Lewis's book "Option ...

2

There is a qualitative shift in the shape of the density. When V is small it is monotone decaying. When V is large it looks more like a Gaussian. Another reason he uses two schemes is that he wants match two moments of the density. When V is small, the moment matching equations for the quadratic Gaussian are unsolvable. When V is large they are unsolvable ...

2

Heston gives an expression for the characteristic function, from which option prices can be computed. Therefore it can be calibrated (statically) on a set of vanilla option prices with different strikes and maturities. Hence this produces risk neutral parameters that can be used to price other more exotic products. However, it is a pain to estimate the ...

2

The Heston model is represented by the bivariate system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) \begin{align} & d{{S}_{t}}=rS_tdt+{\sqrt\upsilon_t} d{{W}_{1}}(t) \\ & d{{\upsilon}_{t}}=\kappa(\theta-\upsilon_t) dt+\sigma{\sqrt\upsilon_t}d{{W}_{2}}(t) \\ \end{align} The most popular way to estimate the parameters of the Heston model is with loss ...

2

The typical approach is: you only use option data from the last day. Furthermore, you only include those points that are liquid enough. One approach to this is to weigh the modelling error of an option by its bid-ask spread and vega. Using data from multiple days is not a good approach, because you might have options with the same strike but different ...

2

In the Heston Model we have \begin{align} C(t\,,{{S}_{t}},{{v}_{t}},K,T)={{S}_{t}}{{P}_{1}}-K\,{{e}^{-r\tau }}{{P}_{2}} \end{align} where,for $j=1,2$ \begin{align} & {{P}_{j}}({{x}_{t}}\,,\,{{v}_{t}}\,;\,\,{{x}_{T}},\ln K)=\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{\pi }\int\limits_{0}^{\infty }{\operatorname{Re}\left( \frac{{{e}^{-i\phi \ln K}}{{f}_{j}}(\phi ;t,x,v)}{i\phi ...

1

The Feller condition applies without modification. That is under the assumption that $v$ is square-root process with poisson-arrival jumps (as you wrote), and assuming the jump distribution is strictly positive and initial level $v_0>0$. The reason is, conditional on no jumps occuring, the process is just a square root process, for which the references ...

1

COS method is an efficient way to recover the distribution function from the characteristic function in the Heston model. For other methods, you may refer to "Inverting Analytic Characteristic Functions and Financial Applications".

1

Look at the B-S parameters for the dynamics of the stock. $\frac{dS}{S} = \mu dt + \sigma dt$ $\sigma$ is independent of strike in the B-S model, which means all derivatives priced assuming these dynamics should have the same volatility. This clearly is not the case given the existence of smile and skew. You can't assume the BS model produces the "fair" ...

1

Intuition: You can think of the vol smile as a reflection of the risk neutral distribution (compared to the Black Scholes Gaussian density). A fat tailed distribution creates the smile: fat tail -> higher prob of exercise than Gaussian with constant stdev -> higher option price than BS with ATM vol -> higher implied vol for given strike. Skewed distributions ...

1

Some simple improvements: 1) Replace the Euler discretization approximation of the volatility to a Milstein discretization approximation. See e.g. these notes by Rouah. 2) 100 Paths is a very low number of paths, and leads to a big standard error in your estimate. So this should be increased by a factor of ~100. 3) You should use some form of variance ...

1

change the discretization and use the QE-M approach: Andersen (2006) the bias is way smaller than the one of the simple Euler. further u can try to use control variates/anthitetic numbers to reduce the sample variance.

1

The issue I have with these approaches is that they use the unconditional distribution to eliminate the latent volatility. However, when the volatility process has very weak mean reversion one would need a very long and clean sample to make robust parameter identification from the unconditional density. They just throw away all the information from the ...

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