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Using months of proprietary data that labels participants by their participant ID, it has been found that during periods of significant volatility, the composition of HFT participants in the book remains mostly constant as a fraction of the total BBO composition. What really changes, it was found, was that the fraction of low-frequency traders aggressing on ...


Exchanges provides the following six timestamps: Gateway In Timestamp-T1. Time at which the order was received by the Gateway from the members TCP connection. Gateway Out Timestamp-T2. This is the time when the order was dispatched by the Gateway to the Matching engine. Matcher In Timestamp-T3. This is the time the order was received by the Matching ...


By design, market makers do not exacerbate volatility because their trades are, as a whole, net passive.


It is all a matter of frequency. For instance if you want to get annual realized volatility you multiply your last expression by $\sqrt{(N*251)}$ or the second to last expression by $\sqrt{(251)}$. In other words, your last expression is the 5-min realized volatility whereas the second to last expression is the daily realized volatility.


Quick summary: Your model should still be well specified, as long as: 1) You do the analysis on a heavily traded asset, e.g. IBM on NYSE, and 2) You use heteroskedasticity-consistent standard errors in your estimation framework, e.g. White's standard errors. I'm going to start the long answer by re-stating the question to make sure I've got it right. Let ...


I'll address things in order as I encountered them in the question. First, your formula for RV only makes sense if $X_{t_i}$ is the log-price, not log-return. If this was just a mistype it would probably be best if you edited the question to correct it. If it is not a mistype, let me know, because then you have bigger problems... Answer 0: I have no idea ...

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