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9

The volatility in the indices long ago was similar in magnitude to what it is today. The problem you are seeing in your plots is one of compounding and scaling. Think of it this way- back in the mid 70's the magnitude of NASDAQ pricing was around \$100. Today it is on the order of \$4000, a change of 40x. In linear terms, a 1% change in the index today ...


6

The fx market, contrary to most other asset classes is an almost entirely fragmented over-the-counter market, aside the very small number of fx futures that are trading at dismal liquidity levels. Therefore, you will not encounter a single serious liquidity provider that will take a stab at estimating total traded volume in any of the currency pairs. Having ...


4

(P) prefix : As a service to the market and typically at the request of an issuer, Moody's will assign a provisional rating when it is highly likely that the rating will become final after all documents are received, or an obligation is issued into the market. A provisional rating is denoted by placing a (P) in front of the rating. Such ratings may also be ...


3

In effect, you are wondering whether to price this option on risk-free probability distributions (B-S drift $r_f$), or real-world ones (B-S drift $\mu$, however calibrated) One cannot short the mutual fund, so the argument for using risk-free is weakened. But, there are various economic equilibrium arguments why using it may still be OK. If you use the ...


3

It depends obviously on which specific leverage you attempt to measure but you can certainly build some sort of index from, for example, the below: Aggregate smoothed equity P/E ratio divergence from long term mean (in a sense it reflects how money is levered to buy stocks at multiples of their long term P/E mean). Broad money in circulation -> Money ...


3

Depends on your budget of course, but: Mergent offers a great service, expensive though. Six Financial Information offers good Corporate Actions service. (Personally, I would go with this one) Morning Star Interactive Data (very hard company to deal with, their legal would waste a lot of your time, but may still worth to get a quote) Also, consider how ...


3

Correct explanation by Freddy. Retail investors and even most institutional investors don't have access to trading, bid, or ask volumes. The reason is that there is no centralized body who would aggregate data. Would it be possible to put it in place? Certainly, but the big fx players (handful of the really big banks) would suffer. Although not even the ...


2

Actually, the first half of the 70s were very volatile. The latter half was more steady. Aside from a quick recession, the first half of the 90s was very calm, but the last half definitely was not. As others have suggested, this become apparent upon inspection of a geometrically scaled price axis. The reasons definitely have nothing to do with electronic ...


2

I composed Gain-Capital's historical data files into one series for back-testing a while ago and too noticed that they are out of order. Each CSV file contains correctly ordered data points but it seems the CSV files are out of order (maybe wrongly named). I went for another source in the end. If Index A comes in at 12:00:01.001 and Forex B comes in at ...


2

To construct best bid/ask from ITCH you must build a book incrementally from the messages in the data. Every message, except for system oriented messages, and non-displayed Trades, represent an order or an action on an order. Process the data, build a book, and you will naturally be left with the best bid/ask at the top of each side.


2

PX_BID and PX_ASK are the static equivalents of BID and ASK, the latter two of which populate in "real time" (i.e. as they are dynamically updated). So the PX_BID and PX_ASK values are dependent upon when you pulled the data. Bloomberg's source depends on the asset in question and the exchange on which they are listed, but the data does come from the ...


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I don't know about free of charge, but if you're subscribed to WRDS or similar data sources, then here's how to get the historical S&P 500 constituents data


1

They represent the current BID and ASK at the time you query them. If you look up those fields in the terminal FLDS<GO> you will see they are marked as reference data, that means they are not continually updated. They are refreshed each time you query them. They come from the NBBO quote at the time you query them.


1

Yes definitely, the biggest challenge of using direct exchange feeds is the cost of maintenance. Here are a few issues to consider in your position: Cost of maintenance. This includes the time it takes to write a feed handler and keep it up-to-date against the exchange's feed API; the cost of colocation, and (often) higher licensing costs of receiving the ...


1

SD is selective default http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/06/28/us-cyprus-downgrade-standardandpoors-idUSBRE95R0YQ20130628 +u is unsolicited rating http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=unsolicited-rating


1

I believe historical Reuters data can be downloaded online. Search for Reuters Key Developments Corpus. The author of this paper (http://people.csail.mit.edu/azar/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/thesis.pdf) used data like this.


1

No you certainly should not use in simulation any data that you don't know in real environment because simply results will be much different. Simulation should be created in environment as much possible similar to real environment. You basically should use only Open values for making trades, High/Close/Low you can use for indicator calculation of past ...


1

Lagged means past values. The lag can be by as long as you want. If Interest Rates today are 0% and yesterday they were 0.25%. Yesterdays value is what we call the lagged value. Let's say its now 2012 and we are looking at IR in yearly frequency. IR is 0.1%. To lag IR we simply look back at the last value. So what was IR last year? It was 0.3%. Notice how ...


1

How about: Each tick is a bid or ask order for some amount. Dukascopy could have order feeds into a number of FX platforms and aggregate the orders found there. They could be iceberg orders. When there's an execution the liquidity is removed from the order book to the trade book. The time this takes to propagate through execution venues can create ...



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